Why do we not have medicines to treat COVID-19 and how long will it take to develop them! SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19 disease, is completely new and attacks cells in a novel way. Every virus is different, and therefore medications are used to treat them.
That is why there was no medication ready to treat the new coronavirus that had been revealed a few months earlier. As a systems biologist who describes how cells are affected by viruses during infection, I am particularly interested in the second question.
It usually takes years to discover vulnerability points and develop medications to treat an illness. But the new Coronavirus is not giving the world that kind of time. With most of the world at risk of confinement and the risk of millions of deaths.
Researchers need to find an effective drug. This situation has presented my colleagues and me with the challenge and opportunity of our lives: helping to resolve this enormous public and economic health crisis posed by the global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
In the face of this crisis, we assembled a team at the Institute for Quantitative Biosciences (QBI) at the University of California, San Francisco to discover how the virus attacks cells. But instead of trying to make a new medicine based on this information.
We first want to see if there is any medicine available today that can disrupt these pathways and fight Coronaviruses. The team of 22 laboratories, which we have called QCRG, works at breakneck speeds, literally 24 hours a day and in shifts, seven days a week.
I imagine this was done during World War II in war efforts, like the Enigma code-breaking group, and our team hopes to destroy our enemy by understanding their inner workings. Compared to human cells, viruses are small and cannot reproduce on their own.
The coronavirus contains around 30 proteins, while a human cell contains more than 20,000. To circumvent this limited set of devices, the virus skillfully pit the human body against itself. The pathways in a human cell are normally closed to external invaders.
But coronaviruses use their own proteins like these to open “blockages” and enter a person’s cells. Once inside, the virus binds to proteins, which the cell typically uses for its own function, essentially hijacking the cell and turning it into a coronavirus factory.
As the resources and mechanics of infected cells are withdrawn to produce thousands upon thousands of viruses, the cells begin to die. Lung cells are particularly vulnerable to this because they express high amounts of using the “blocked” protein SARS-CoV-2 for entry. The respiratory symptoms related to COVID-19 are caused by the large number of dying lung cells.
There are two ways to fight back. First, drugs can attack the virus’s own proteins, preventing them from entering the cell or acting as if they were mimicking its genetic material when inside it. This is how remdesivir, a drug currently in clinical trials for COVID-19, works.
One problem with this approach is that viruses change and change over time. In the future, Coronavirus may develop so that a medicine like Remedisvir is useless. This is an arms race between drugs and viruses, so you need a new flu shot every year.
Alternatively, a drug can work by inhibiting viral proteins from interactions with a human protein that needs it. This approach, which essentially protects the machinery of the host, has a great advantage over the deactivation of the virus.
Since the human cell does not change rapidly. Once you get a good medicine, it should continue to work. This is the approach our team is taking. And it can also work against other emerging viruses.
The first thing our group needed to do was identify each part of the cell factory that relies on the reproduction of the coronavirus. We need to find out what protein the virus hijacked. To do this, a team from my laboratory conducted a molecular fishing expedition into human cells.
Instead of hooking onto the hook, they used viral proteins with small chemical labels known as “bait.” We put these forages into human cells grown in the lab and then took them out to see what we saw. All that was stuck was a human protein that the virus sequestered during infection.
As of March 2, we had a partial list of human proteins that coronaviruses need to thrive. These were the first tracks we were able to use. A team member texted our group, “First iteration, only 3 baits … The next 5 baits are coming.” The fight was on.
Once we have this list of molecular targets that the virus needs to survive, team members are quick to identify known compounds that can bind to these targets and use them to replicate the virus. You can stop doing it.
If a compound can prevent the virus from copying into a person’s body, the infection stops. But it cannot interfere with cellular processes without harming the body. Our team needed to make sure that the compounds we identified were safe and non-toxic to people.
The traditional way of doing it would involve years of preclinical studies and clinical trials costing millions of dollars. But there is a quick and basically free way and find 20,000 FDA approved drugs that have already been tested for safety. Perhaps there is a drug on this great list that can fight Coronavirus.
Our chemists used a vast database to link approved drugs and proteins, which interact with the proteins on our list. He received 10 candidate drugs last week. For example, one of the successes was an anticancer drug called JQ1.
While we can’t predict how this drug can affect the virus, it has a good chance of doing something. Through testing, we find out if that helps some patients. Faced with the threat of the closure of world borders.
We immediately sent these 10 boxes of medicines to two of the few laboratories in the world that work with samples of live coronaviruses. The Pasteur Institute in Paris and Mount Sinai in New York. By March 13, the drugs were being tested in the cells to see if they prevent the virus from reproducing.
Our team will soon learn from our colleagues in the bush. Sinai and the Pasteur Institute none of these top 10 medications work against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Meanwhile. The team continued to fish with viral baits, finding hundreds of additional human proteins that are cooperatives of coronaviruses.
We will soon post the results in the Biorexiv online repository. The good news is that so far, our team has found 50 existing drugs that recognize human proteins. This large number makes me hope that we can find a medicine to treat COVID-19.
If we find an approved drug that slows the progression of the virus, doctors should be able to start it quickly and save lives for patients. [You must understand the coronavirus epidemic and it can help you. Read our latest blog news – tips16.com & netbij.com/blog]
This article was originally published in Conversation. The post contributed to a Live Science‘s Expert Voices article: Op-Ed & Insights. This article is based on text provided by Southwestern Medical Center at the University of Texas.
- Biological Origin In Martian Thiophenes
- Lizard Foot Found In Dominican Amber
- Exomoon Candidates The Size Of Neptune
- The Magnetic North Pole of The Earth Flies Towards Siberia
- A Impenetrable Barrier 11,500 km Above Earth
- The ‘Proton Aurora’ is The Most Common Type
- Plants Produce Ultrasonic Clicks Under Stress
- Proxima-C: Possible Second Planet Found
- Citrus Flavonoid Nobiletin Can Reduce Obesity
- The Universe Is Largely Anisotropic With New Study
- Chest CT Has A High Sensitivity For The Diagnosis Of COVID-19
- Study The New Shed On Silver’s Antimicrobial Activity
- New Species Of Fossil Bird From The Eosin Period
- Super-Puff Swollen Exoplanets Are Actually Giant Ring
- Dietary Prebiotics Can Improve Sleep And Prevent The Fight Against Stress By Affecting Intestinal Bacteria
- Astronomers See Four New G Objects Near The Supermassive Black Hole Of The Milky Way
- Some Chimpanzees Have Small Bones in Their Hearts
- What Are The Health Benefits Of Green Tea?
- New Discovered Bird-Like Dinosaurs
- Why You Should Sleep Better And Andy Mattress Review From A Tory Weser
- TESS Discovers Its First Thick Disc Exoplanet
- New Winged Dinosaurs Introduced: Dineobellator Notohesperus
- What Is Green Tea? Does Green Tea Help Weight Loss?
- SARS-CoV-2 Remains Stable In Coronavirus Aerosols
- The Hubble Team Publishes New Photos Of Interstellar Comet 2i / Borisov
- 7 Earth-Sized Planets Orbit Dwarf Star
- Archaeologists Trace The Long-Lost Capital Of The Ancient Maya Kingdom
- The Hubble Team Celebrates The 30th Anniversary Calendar
- Humans Interfere With Four Species Of Extinct Hominids
- What is SEO And Why Do You Need it?
- Why Smart And Hardworking People Don’t Succeed?
- Technology And Social Media: Friend Or Foe?
- A Dangerous Ring of Neutral Hydrogen
- Enigmatic Fast Radio Exploded in The 157-Day Cycle
- That Is Why The Particle ‘X17’ And A New Fifth Force Probably Do Not Exist
- NASA’s Next Mars Rover Receives Its Official Name
- Study: Life Can Happen In The Inflationary Universe
- 43,900 Year Old Cave Painting
- Juno Spots, New Circulating Cyclone at The South Pole of Jupiter
- How to Increase Traffic to Your Blog?
- Discovery Of New Species Of Deep-Sea Dogfish Sharks
- Third-Hand Tobacco Smoke Is A Real Threat To Public Health
- Astronomers Map Out The Supermassive Black Hole
- Why Do We Not Have Medicines To Treat COVID-19
- Medications Can Help Fight COVID-19 Disease
- The Young Brown Dwarf Mated On The Playground
- The 99 Million-Year-Old Amber Hummingbird-Sized Dinosaur
- How Technology Helps In Our Daily Lives?
- How To Earn Money Blogging?
- How To Start A Blog And Earn Money?
- Wonderchicken: A New Species Of Ancient Bird Has Been Identified
- Ibuprofen, Paracetamol, And COVID-19
- The Asteroid Vesta Has A Turbulent Past
- The K2-18b Super-Earth Exoplanet Can Have Perfect Conditions For Life
- Curiosity Capturing A 1.8 Billion Pixel Panorama
- The Oldest Bilaterian Fossil Was Found In Australia
- Astronomers Capture Galactic Fireworks In The Nearby Spiral Galaxy
- Progress Of Science And Technology Development & Impact Since 1945
- What is WordPress & How To Create Website?
- The Researchers Identified 126,018 Human Genetic Variations
- Astronomers Discovered The First Pulsed White Dwarf
- The ALMA Bipolar Planetary Nebula
- Astronomers Observe Ultra-massive White Dwarfs
- What Is The Best Digital Marketing Solution?
- Technological Development of The 19th Century
- 7 Most Important Things To Know Before Your Visit in Nepal
- Changu Narayan Temple As The Oldest Temple In The Kathmandu Valley
- The Perceptions Of Four-Limbed Devonian Creatures
- How Much Do We Really Need To Promote Goodness In The “Time Of Nature”?
- How To Start A Blog & Earn Money?
- NASA’s Messaging Mission Performs Spatial Measurements
- Astronomers Revealed The Secret Of Peter Pan’s Protoplanetary Disk
- NASA Test At The Rover New Moon Lunar Operation Lab
- New Winged Dinosaur Species In China
- Betelgeuse Is Not Dimming Because It Is The explosion
- Pair Of Galaxies Forming A Dusty Star 13 Billion Light Years Away
- Astronomers Discovered Seventeen New Extra solar Planets
- New Candidate Particle For Dark Matter
- How To Start A Blog And Make Money?
- The New Invention Gives Hope To All Those Who Suffer From Chronic Snoring
- Therapeutic Agents And Vaccines For COVID-19
- Astronomers Have Discovered 139 New Trans-Neptune Objects
- COVID-19 During Pregnancy Or Childbirth
- China Is Recovering To Develop Effective COVID-19 Treatments
- Planetary Scientists Make The First Global Map
- Crocodiles From The Cretaceous Period Of Korea
- What Is Bollywood & What Is The Future Of Bollywood?
- Green Tea Polyphenol Active Against Tuberculosis Bacteria
- What is NASA?
- The Infrared Radiation Of The Hot Powder Generates
- Why Coffee Is A Healthy Food?
- Data From The ESA Gaia Star Mapping Satellite
- The Scientists Discovered Chemical Markers Of DNA
- The Most Powerful Black Hole Explosion In The Universe
- The Most Important Technological Trends In 2020