The perceptions of four-limbed devonian creatures reveal how vertebrates develop from fish fins. A 1.57 m (5.2 ft) long specimen from the Canadian Devonian period Alpsiostig Watsoni has discovered an evolutionary link lost to tetrapod infection in fish.
Artistic reconstruction of the fossil Alpistostage Watsoni found in Migusha, Canada. Image by Katrina Kenny. The evolution of fish in tetrapods, four-legged vertebrates of which are humans, was one of the most important events in the history of life.
Vertebrates were able to release water and conquer land. To complete this change, one of the most important changes was the development of the arms and legs. To understand the evolution of fish fins to a tetrapod organ, paleontologists study lobed-finned fish and tetrapod fossils from the Middle and High Devonian (393–359 million years ago) known as the Alpistosteglian.
These include the famous Tiktaalik roses from Canada’s Arctic, known only to incomplete specimens. “We announce the discovery of a complete specimen of a tetrapod fish called alpistostase watsoni,” the study’s lead author, Professor Long at Flinders University, revealed extraordinary new information about the development of the vertebrate arm. “
Professor Long and his colleagues examined samples from 380 million years old using high-energy computed tomography. The skeleton of the Alpistostage watsoni pectoral fin traced the presence of a humerus (arm), radius and ulna (forearm), shell (wrist) and phalanges, supported by digits (fingers).
Professor Long said, “This is the first time we have scratched wings with wings on any known fish.”
“The artistic marks on the pen are primarily like finger bones found in the hands of animals.”
“This discovery traces the origin of the digits in the vertebrae down to the level of the fish, and tells us that the pattern for the vertebral arm was developed for the first time in evolution, just before the fish emerged from the water.”
“Over the past decade, the fossils that reported fish tetrapod infection have helped us better understand the physiological changes associated with breathing, hearing, and feeding, as the habitat has changed from water to land on Earth.” Principal Dr. Richard Clottier, researcher at the Universe du Québec, told Rimouski.
“The origin of the numbers is related to the development of the ability to fish in shallow water or for short trips on land. The greater number of small bones in the wing allows more flexibility planes to distribute their weight through the fins It is “.
“Other characteristics found in the study of the structure of the bone of the upper arm or the humerus, which also show the current characteristics that are shared with the first amphibians. Elpistostege watsoni is not necessarily our ancestor, but it is the closest we can get to a true transitional fossil, an intermediary between fish and tetrapods. “
When the fish gave birth to us: One of the most important events in the history of life was when the fish evolved into the tetrapod, crawling out of the water and finally conquering the land. The term tetrapod refers to vertebrates with four limbs, including humans.
To achieve this change, several physical changes were necessary. One of the most important was the development of hands and feet. In 2010, working with researchers from the University of Quebec, we discovered the first complete specimen of the alpistostig Watsoni.
This tetrapod fish lived more than 380 million years ago and belonged to a group called Alpistosteglian. Our research, based on this specimen published today in the wild, suggests that this fish’s wings are likely to develop a human hand, which we refer to by its genus name, Elpistostegae.
The Alpistosteglian is an extinct group that exhibits characteristics of both lobe-finned fish and early tetrapods. They were probably involved in closing the gap between prehistoric fish and animals capable of living on land.
Therefore, our latest discovery provides valuable information on the development of the vertebral arm. The best sample we have found: To understand how fish wings (hands and feet) were made with markings through evolution, we studied extinct lobed fish and fossils from early tetrapods.
The lobe fin includes bony fish (ostechiathes) with strong fish such as lame and koilaketh. During the Middle and High Devonian times, Alpistosteglians lived 393–359 million years ago.
Our discovery of the 1.57m Alpistostegé, fully discovered from Migusha National Park in Quebec, Canada, is the first example of a complete skeleton of a fossil of any Alpistosteglian fish.
Prior to this, the most complete alpistosteglian specimen was a teak-like roseae skeleton found in the Canadian Arctic in 2004, but was missing the tip of its fin.
When the wings become part: The origin of numbers in terrestrial vertebrates is highly debated. The small bones at the tips of fish’s pectoral fins, such as the alpistostig, are called “radial” bones. When the radials form a series of rows, like the numbers, they are essentially the same as the fingers on the tetrapod.
The only difference is that, in these advanced fish, the marks are still closed inside the fins and are not yet free like human fingers. Our recently exposed alpicostage specimen reveals the presence of a humerus (arm), radius, and ulna (forearm), rows of carpal bones (wrist), and small bones in discrete rows.
We believe this is the first evidence of numerical bones found in fin-ray fish fins (bone rays that support the fin). This suggests that vertebral fingers, including human hands, first evolved as rows of numerical bones on the wings of alpicostal fish.
What is the evolutionary advantage?
From an evolutionary point of view, the rows of digit bones in prehistoric fish wings would have provided the wing with the flexibility to support weight more effectively.
This could have been useful when the alpistostase was moving in the shallow water or trying to get out of the water on the ground. Ultimately, the increased use of such feathers will lead to loss of feathers in rows and the appearance of marks in rows, creating a larger surface area to hold the ground surface.
Our specimen displays many features that are not yet known, and will describe the skull and other aspects of its body skeleton in detail, based on a number of future documents. Elpistostege allows the line between fish and vertebrates to remain on the ground.
This is not necessarily our ancestor, but the closest example we have now is “transition fossils”, which bridge the gap between fish and tetrapods. The first Alpistostige fossil, a fragment of a skull, was found in the late 1930s. It was related to an early amphibian.
The front half of the skull was found in the mid-1980s, and was confirmed to be an advanced lobed winged fish. Our new complete specimen was discovered in the fossil-rich rocks of the UNESCO-listed Migusha National Park in Eastern Canada. Migusha is considered one of the best sites to study fish fossils from the Devonian period (known as the “age of the fish”).
Because it contained a large number of fish fossils with lobed wings. Those who are in an extraordinary state of conservation. John Long, Professor of Strategic Paleontology, Flinders University and Richard Clotier, Professor of Evolutionary Biology, Universite du Québ a Rimouski, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski (UQAR)
This article is republished from Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.
The study is published in the journal Nature.
The Devonian period is traditionally known as the “Fish Age,” which marks the diversification of several important extinct and modern fish groups. The first of these were bony fish, which diversified and spread in fresh and brackish water environments at the beginning of the period.
The earliest types saw their cartilaginous ancestors in many features of their anatomy, including a shark-like telfin, spiral intestines, large pectoral fins squeezed against skeletal elements, and a largely informal axial skeleton.
However, they do have some traits that differentiate them from cartilaginous fish, traits that will be important in the development of landforms. With the exception of a pair of spiracles, the gills did not open outward as they do in sharks; Rather, they were tied with membranous bones to a branchial chamber and covered by the bony operculum, with a single opening on the outside.
The cleithrum bone that forms the posterior margin of the golden chamber also acts as an anchor for the pectoral fin. Cartilaginous fish do not have such an anchor for the pectoral fins. This allows for a movable joint at the base of the wing in the first bony fishes, and will later function in a weight bearing structure in the tetrapods.
As part of the general armor of the rhomboid scales of cosmin, the skull contained a full covering of dermal bone, forming a skull roof in a shark-like cartilaginous inner skull. Crucially, they had a pair of paired ventral lungs, which lacked sharks and rays.
Fish were supposed to develop largely around reefs, but since their inception around 480 million years ago, they have lived in near-coastal environments such as the intertidal zone or permanently shallow lagoons, and 60 million did not begin to spread to others. biotopes before.
Years later. Some people adapt to deep water, while the solid and highly constructed form is where they lived or migrated to fresh water. Increased primary productivity on land during the Late Devonian changed the freshwater ecosystem. When plant nutrients were released into lakes and rivers, they were absorbed by microorganisms.
Which in turn were consumed by invertebrates, which served as food for vertebrates. Some fish also became harmful. Early tetrapods develop tolerance to environments that differ in salinity, such as estuaries or deltas.
Lungs before the ground
The pulmonary / floating bladder originated as an outbreak of the intestine, forming a gas-filled bladder above the digestive system. In its primitive form, the air bladder was open to the Elemental Channel, a condition called a physiostom and is still found in many fish. The main function is not completely safe. One idea is rebound.
The large-scale armor of the first bony fish would certainly weigh the animals. In cartilaginous fish, a swim bladder is missing, open sea sharks need to swim continuously to avoid sinking into the depths, the pectoral fins provide lift. Another factor is oxygen consumption.
Ambient oxygen was relatively low in the early Devonian, possibly about half of modern values. Per unit volume, there is much more oxygen in the air than water, and vertebrates are active animals with higher energy requirements than invertebrates of similar size.
The Devonian saw an increase in oxygen levels, opening up new ecological zones by allowing groups to exploit excess oxygen to become full-bodied active animals. Atmospheric oxygen is much more stable, particularly in tropical swamp habitats, and can induce lung dependence on primary oxygen instead of the gills.
Finally, both buoyancy and respiration can be important, and some modern physiostem fish actually use their bladder for both. To function in gas exchange, the blood supply to the lungs is required. In cartilaginous fishes and telostas.
The heart is low in the body and pumps blood forward through the abdominal aorta, which is divided into a series of paired aortic arches, each similar to a branchial arch. The aortic arch fuses over the gills to form the dorsal aorta that supplies oxygenated blood to the body.
In lung fish, coffins, and bicolids, the swim bladder is supplied by the blood to the pulmonary arteries, which originate from the most posterior aortic arch (sixth).
The same basic pattern is found in the protopterus of lungfish and terrestrial salamander was probably the pattern found in the immediate ancestors of tetrapods, as well as in previous tetrapods. In most other bony fish, the swim bladder receives blood from the dorsal aorta.