The new report includes possible therapeutic agents and vaccines for COVID-19

Therapeutic Agents And Vaccines For COVID-19

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The new report includes possible therapeutic agents and vaccines for COVID-19, researchers from CAS, a division of the American Chemical Society. Researchers at CAS, a division of the American Chemical Society, have released the new report in which they provide an overview of previously published scientific information on possible therapeutic agents and vaccines for CORID-19, the cause of SARS-VOC-2.

It is a respiratory disease that occurs. Crown… This scanning electron microscope image shows SARS-COV-2 (round gold objects) protruding from the surface of cells grown in the laboratory. The virus shown was isolated from an American patient. The outbreak of the coronavirus disease COVID-19 represents an epidemic threat to global public health.

Although the outbreak occurred in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the disease has spread to more than 100 countries. Furthermore, the lives of millions of people have been affected as a result of mandatory segregation / quarantine. This scanning electron microscope image shows SARS-COV-2 (round gold objects) protruding from the surface of cells grown in the laboratory.

The virus shown was isolated from a patient in the EE image. The ripple effect of the COVID-19 outbreaks can potentially bring great challenges to health systems worldwide and can have far-reaching consequences on the global economy if the spread of the virus is not effectively controlled.

SARS-CoV-2 primarily attacks the lower respiratory system to cause viral pneumonia, but it can also affect the gastrointestinal system, heart, kidneys, liver, and central nervous system. To aid in research efforts to find therapies and vaccines for COVID-19, Dr. Cynthia Liu’s CAS and colleagues analyzed published scientific data on SARS-CoV-2 and related coronaviruses.

The scientists reviewed the growing body of journal articles related to COVID-19 and SARS-COV-2, as well as what to do with the human coronavirus. From the last week of 2019 to March 1, 2020, more than 500 journal articles related to the virus were published electronically or in print, and the numbers steadily increased week by week.

Topics included clinical manifestations, treatment regimen, viral structure and mechanisms, antiviral agents, and diagnostics. To date, more than 500 patents have been issued for vaccines and therapeutic agents, such as antibodies, cytokines, and nucleic acids, that can help prevent or treat coronavirus infection.

 Because SARS-CoV-2 is similar to other coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV, the researchers shed light on previously discovered treatments for these other viruses that can also be applied to SARS-CoV-2. The information included in the report provides a solid intellectual basis for the continued development of therapeutic agents and vaccines, the authors stated. The report was published in the ACS Central Science Journal.

Coronavirus and a $ 2 billion race to find a vaccine. New companies leading the American fight to vaccinate people will need state support and up to 18 months to do the business. Use the sharing tool found through the share button at the top or side of the article.

Juan Andrés woke up three times during the night after putting his valuable vaccine vials behind a delivery truck. In late February, Modern, a Boston-based biotechnology group, broke the record for the fastest time between identifying a virus, in this case the COVID-19 coronavirus, and a vaccine ready to test in humans: just 42 days

In the lab, the team was excited, but in the early hours, Andrés, a 30-year veteran pharmacist in charge of manufacturing, nervously checked his phone to locate a truck carrying a potential vaccine at one location. The US National Institutes of Health will begin testing to see if it works.

He says: “Pride [race] is needed.” Doing this as soon as possible is a must. “Once they were sure the vaccine had arrived safely, the team celebrated with ice cream. At least 100 employees Modern people worked on the project, but Mr. Andrés says everyone is excited to get involved, including people’s families. He said, “I remember my 15-year-old son thinking I did something good.”

Modern is one of more than 20 public sector companies and organizations competing worldwide to develop a vaccine against COVID-19, which suffers from respiratory diseases in the Chinese city of Wuhan in more than two months. I’ve been around a few people. The epidemic with 95,000 cases and 3,300 deaths so far worldwide.

The Alliance for Epidemiological Preparedness Innovations, an association of governments, industry and charities formed three years ago to combat emerging diseases that threaten global health, has already sponsored four COVID-19 vaccine projects, including Modern Has Also Been about to sign four more contracts, says CEPI executive director Richard Hatchet. He estimates that developing the COVID-19 vaccines at the required speed will cost around $ 2 billion in the next 12-18 months.

Modernism is far from being the fastest start, Drs. Hatchet believes, but many others lag behind. “We received 48 applications from around the world following our call for proposals in February,” he said. “There is a real sense of urgency. . . Because the threat we face is unprecedented in terms of its speed and potential severity in the last 100 years, “he says, referring to the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic.

Morden’s trigger came when his executive director, Stephen Bansell, who worked on the 2009 H1N1 swine flu pandemic that migrated from Mexico, called a liaison at the National Institutes of Health. In the fall, both organizations agreed to conduct a test at the company’s manufacturing plant to see how quickly they could respond to an epidemic. But before a dry test was possible, coronaviruses, part of a family of viruses that cause respiratory illnesses ranging from mild colds to fatal pneumonia, provide a real test.

Located on a hill outside Boston, the Modern factory in Norwood is smaller than a standard pharmaceutical plant. It was designed to be quickly adaptable, as some of its potential products are individual to each patient. Work began at the Massachusetts facility and other initial participants in the COVID-19 vaccine race, as soon as Chinese scientists released the coronavirus genome, the 30,000 biochemical “documents” of its genetic code, on January 10.

“With the genomic sequence, we were out of the running,” says Anthony Fauci, head of the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. From an outbreak onward, it is impossible to predict which virus will come next. “Instead of trying to develop a vaccine for a pathogen [virus], which is difficult. . . You should try to develop a technological platform to facilitate the rapid development of vaccines.

One such platform is the production of modern vaccines based on viral genetics. As of February 7, company scientists had produced dozens of doses of clinical-grade vaccines, enough for an initial NIH test in healthy volunteers to be conducted in April. The researchers had to wait to see if the batch was sterile, the bacteria would have two weeks to grow. He completed the other tests necessary to quickly resume staffing. Luckily everything went well, at every step.

Despite the haggling, vaccine experts say it will take at least 18 months to a year before it becomes available for widespread use, usually taking several years to process. After an initial safety test, there should now be a larger clinical study to assess efficacy. Meanwhile, the epidemic is likely to spread worldwide, killing thousands or millions.

The work of Morden and his rivals can only be helpful if the coronavirus re-enters another outbreak next year or becomes an endemic infection like seasonal flu. Along with the uncertainty of business return, the industry’s response to the pandemic continues to elicit elements of corporate social responsibility and a scientific challenge, though there is sometimes a big payoff, such as Welcome, which is then part of GlaxoSmithKline, which meets with his main AIDS drugs Zidovuddin. 1980s.

Modern may be the first to test in humans, but many more are trying to make vaccines, from large pharmaceutical companies like Johnson & Johnson and Sanofi to academics, including the University of Queensland. Genetic sequencing and new structural biology tools are transforming vaccine development, allowing scientists to create their own synthetic versions of the virus, rather than having to wait for an FXX.

It’s opening the field to new players, says Paul Dupreaux, director of the University of Pittsburgh’s Vaccine Research Center. He says: “There are people who think about problems in different ways, rather than being limited by the growth of viruses, especially in the laboratory.”

Shane Kratty, a professor at the La Jolla Institute of Immunology in California, says an approach is being followed to uncover the best immune response in a patient with the disease, and try to copy it so that the vaccine could achieve greater immune defense. “This has been the biggest and most exciting advancement in the past five years. Many of them have done good-looking human trials. It is a more sophisticated way of making a vaccine,” he said.

Many companies have lost money on vaccines developed for past outbreaks, such as Ebola and Saras, which had almost ended before products were ready. Now that Modern is at the first hurdle, you should prepare to start. The Norwood facility may prepare a large batch for the next test. But may not produce a vaccine for all who need it.

Sir. Bansell is in talks with governments about how they will make millions or billions of supplements. Inevitably, the modern will have very few options to deal with a larger manufacturer. Modern scientists linked the two central parts of the corewoodv vaccine laboratory to the company’s operation in Norwood.

Roger Conor, president of GSK’s global vaccines, says that when clinical trials successfully produce licensed products, production capacity will be critical. “Everyone would like it right away. After this, it may take some time to form a supply organization,” he warned.

GSK, the world’s largest vaccine maker, has announced a partnership with China’s Clover Biopharmaceuticals, one of the country’s largest in-house biopharmaceutical manufacturing operations. GSK has also created its “Adjuvant” technology, which was shown to be effective in the H1N1 flu pandemic, which is available free of charge to any company that can use it.

When added to a vaccine, a support agent can trigger a strong immune response. “The dose you need to give for a vaccine may be small, which means you can pass it on to more people,” he said. GSK has many prospects because it announces that it will make the technology available and is running a “structured assessment” process to determine who gets it.

Not all vaccines “technically would benefit from an adjuvant, so we do a technical analysis, first, that their candidate vaccines would really benefit, and our experts can tell. Then we want to understand how competent they are. And what are their chances of make it successful, “he said.

Mr. Connor says that obtaining a successful vaccine is a major concern for any commercial benefit of participating in the manufacture of a successful vaccine. “Right now we are fully focused on science and focused on who to partner with. . . Bring a shot together quickly. “

Eager to negotiate trade terms, he says, “We think the priority is to get scientific collaboration, get the product for free, check it preclinically, and see if it can work.” In the US, where politicians and patients protest against high drug prices, more than 40 members of Congress wrote to Donald Trump in February asking the president to make sure that the government funds any vaccines or treatments. An important chain occurred to him: everyone will be able to access it.

Jan Skakowski, a Democratic congressman from Illinois, says: “If we treat something at the taxpayer’s expense, through some treatment or vaccine, we need to be able to pay for it everywhere.” “It should not be administered to private pharmaceutical companies.” Dr. de Sefi “We are very concerned about access,” says Hatchet. “With the H1N1 flu in 2009, the wealthiest countries awarded contracts and supplied vaccines.”

Sephy has planned the stage a lot, including asking if a COVID-19 vaccine would be needed when it is ready next year. “I don’t think it’s long admirable that prevention is successful and that the disease collapses,” he says. “There is a business case that there will be a long-term commercial niche for these vaccines.”

Back at Morden headquarters, Mr. Bansell says that COVID-19 proved that the company’s technology was faster than anyone imagined and next time you think it could be even faster. However, as the death toll rises, her colleague Stephen Hoge, the company’s president, fears that even early may not be enough.

When he thought Modern would have time to breathe when, after the first batch of his potential vaccine came out, he saw the outbreak spread to South Korea, Europe and beyond. Like Mr. Andrés, he had sleepless nights. “I go to bed thinking that we have made progress,” he says, “and waking up every morning feeling from one side to the other.”

A variety of options to avoid the risk of failure: Traditionally, vaccines have a weak live virus, a dead virus, or virus-produced proteins. The vaccine is often grown inside living cells like bacteria or eggs. Once purified and injected, it affects the body’s immune system, which then recognizes and attacks the virus the next time it is seen.

Some COVID-19 vaccine candidates, such as those produced by China’s Clover Biopharmaceutical, are high-tech versions of these traditional approaches, creating viral proteins in genetically engineered cells. Outside of a preferred virus is the “spike protein,” which the coronavirus uses to capture and enter human cells.

The University of Queensland uses innovative “molecular clamp” technology to hold the protein in a way that the antibody is more likely to recognize. Sanofi plans to design a different and harmless virus to transport the Kovid-19 protein in people.

Others, including Modern, are developing “nucleic acid vaccines,” which have a genetic recipe for viral proteins in the form of DNA or messenger RNA (mRNA). This leaves human receptors to make proteins within their bodies. Any viral vaccine made from nucleic acid has not yet been licensed for human use.

At Modern’s factory in Norwood, 40 scientists in a preclinical laboratory created mRNA encoding for the COVID-19 spike protein. The first batch was done in days in a large white room, where color is a warning sign and mini robots carry trays of small vials. The mRNA peak was injected into a microscopic fat bubble called lipid nanoparticles, a delivery vehicle for carrying genetic instructions to patients.

One of the concerns was that COVID-19 has abnormally large peak genes that are longer than most modern vaccines. When scientists confirmed that both the tail and the cap of the mRNA had reached the vaccine, the work was completed in a laboratory that makes individual cancer vaccines“We want to defend ourselves against different risks by supporting a variety of different methods,” says Richard Hatchet, executive director of Sephy.

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