The K2-18b Super-Earth Exoplanet Can Have Perfect Conditions For Life, A Team Of Astronomers From The Institute Of Astronomy At The University Of Cambridge, UK. A team of astronomers from the Institute of Astronomy at the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, discovered that K2-18b, a planet of approximately nine Earth masses in orbit around the red dwarf K2-18, is potentially habitable.
The perception of this artist shows the planets K2-18b & c and their host stars Image by NASA / ESA / Hubble K2-18 is an M-type star located 111 light years away in the constellation Leo. Also known as EPIC 201912552, the star houses two large planets: K2-18b and c. Discovered in 2015, the K2-18b has an Earth radius of 2.6 times and is approximately 8.6 times larger.
The planet orbits the original star at a distance of approximately 0.15 AU every 33 days and has an Earth Parity Index of 0.73. In 2019, two different teams reported the detection of water vapor in the hydrogen-rich atmosphere of K2-18b. However, the limit and internal conditions of the bottom of the atmosphere remained unknown. Water vapor has been detected in the atmosphere in a volatile region.
Although the planet is in a habitable zone, it does not mean that there are habitable conditions on the surface, said Dr. Nikku Madhusudan, lead author, said The Study. To establish the possibilities of habitation, it is important to obtain a unified understanding of the internal and atmospheric conditions on the planet, specifically, if liquid water can exist under the atmosphere.
Given the larger size of the K2-18b, it has been suggested that it would be more like a smaller version of Neptune than a larger version of the Earth. It is expected that a ‘mini-Neptune’ has a large ‘envelope’ of hydrogen that surrounds a layer of high pressure water with an inner core of rock and iron.
If the hydrogen envelope is too thick, the temperature and surface pressure below the water layer will be too high to support life. Now Dr. Madhusudan and his colleagues have shown that despite the size of K2-18b. Its hydrogen envelope is not necessarily very thick and the water layer may be the right position to support life.
Astronomers used existing observations of the atmosphere and as well as mass and radius, to determine the structure and composition of the atmosphere and the interior using detailed numerical models and statistical methods to interpret the data. They confirmed that the atmosphere is rich in hydrogen with significant amounts of water vapor. They also discovered that the levels of other chemicals such as methane and ammonia were lower than expected for such environments.
Can these levels be attributed to biological processes: Then, the researchers used atmospheric properties as boundary conditions to model the interior of the planets. He discovered several models that could explain the atmospheric properties, as well as the planet’s mass and radius. This allowed them to derive the range of potential conditions in the internal environment.
Including the extent of the hydrogen envelope and the temperature and pressure in the water layer. We wanted to know the thickness of the hydrogen envelope, how deep is the hydrogen,” said study co-author Matthew Nixon. While this is a question with many solutions, we have shown that not too much hydrogen is needed to explain all the comments together.
The scientists found that the maximum limit of hydrogen envelopes allowed by the data is approximately 6% of the planet’s mass, although most solutions require very little. The minimum amount of hydrogen is approximately one millionth in mass, which is similar to the mass fraction of the Earth’s atmosphere.
In particular, with liquid water under the atmosphere at the pressures and temperatures found in the Earth’s oceans, many scenarios allow ocean water. The findings will be published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Listening decisively No foreign signals were detected from interstate comet 2I / Borisov, Hubble captured 2I / Borisov on December 9, 2019.
Breakthrough Listen, the largest scientific research program aimed at finding evidence of intelligent life beyond Earth. Published data from its observations of 2I / Borisov, an interstellar comet that had a close encounter with our Sun in December 2019. Hubble captured 2I / Borisov on December 9, 2019, shortly after the closest approach to the Sun, where he gained maximum heat after spending most of his life in the middle of the refrigerator.
NASA / ESA / D. Image of Jewett, University of California, Los Angeles. Shortly after his closest approach to the Sun, where he spent most of his life in the icy interstellar space, he reached maximum heat. 2I / Borisov was discovered by Ukrainian amateur astronomer Gennady Borisov on August 30, 2019.
Also known as C / 2019 Q4, the comet formed in a planetary system beyond us and shot into interstellar space as a result of a close collision with a planet in its parent system. 2I / Borisov has taken the form of “ghostly” after starting to react to the sun’s warming. The comet moved closer to the Sun on December 8, 2019, which is about 293 million kilometers (182 million miles) from our star.
In mid-2020, he will return to interstellar space, where he will travel for millions of years, one day before approaching a star system. If interstellar travel is possible and if other civilizations are out. If they are motivated to build an interstellar probe, then some fractions are greater than zero. Which are artificial interstellar devices,” said Steve Croft, Berkeley SETI research center.
An astronomer with decisive listening. As we do with our measurement of transmitters on extrasolar planets, we want to maintain a limit on that number. Dr. Croft and his colleagues look for electromagnetic radiation that corresponds to a signal that we know is produced by technology and that is inconsistent with the background noise of natural astrological events.
This requires the elimination of signals from cell phones, satellites, GPS, Internet, WiFi and many other human sources. The Breakthrough Listen team intends to analyze all published data, systematically and iteratively. Only 20% of the captured data has been analyzed as such. The group first scanned the interstellar rock, Omumua, which passed through the center of our solar system in 2017. Neither of them was technically proven.
NASA’s incredible simulation reveals what Earth would look like if the oceans drain. The oceans cover most of the Earth, including its longest mountain range and the ancient bridges that humans crossed to reach other continents. In a new version of a 2008 NASA video, planetary scientist James O’Donoghue shows what it would look like if all the water was drained, revealing the three fifth hidden parts of the Earth’s surface.
O’Donoghue works at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and was previously at NASA. For the video, he took an animation that NASA physicist and animator Horace Mitchell created in 2008 and gave him some additions. He edited the time and added a tracker to show the amount of water drained throughout the animation.
As the oceans slowly lose water, the first pieces of hidden land that emerge are the continental platforms at the underwater edges of each continent. I slowed the startup speed because, surprisingly, there is a lot of underwater landscape instantly revealed in the first tens of meters, O’Donoghue told Business Insider in an email.
The continental shelves include some of the land bridges that the first humans crossed while migrating from continent to continent. Tens of thousands of years ago, our ancestors could walk from continental Europe to the United Kingdom, from Siberia to Alaska and from Australia to the surrounding islands. When the last ice age occurred, a lot of ocean water was locked like ice at the planet’s poles.
That’s why there used to be land bridges, O’Donoghue said. Each of these links allowed humans to migrate, and when the ice age ended, water sealed them. By removing that water, the animation offers a glimpse into the world of our ancient ancestors. It also shows the longest mountain range on Earth.
Which appears once sea levels have dropped from 2,000 to 3,000 meters (6,500 to 9,800 feet). That is the crest of the middle ocean, which spans more than 37,000 miles (60,000 kilometers) worldwide. More than 90 percent are underwater. The volcanic mountains arise from the seams where Earth‘s tectonic plates move away from each other, creating a new ocean floor as molten rock rises beneath the plant’s crust.
Once the animated oceans drain 6,000 meters (20,000 feet), most of the water is gone. But it takes almost another 5,000 meters (16,000 feet) to empty the deepest sections of the Mariana Trench. I like how this animation reveals that the ocean floor is as variable and interesting in its geology as the continents, said O’Donoghue. He added that emptying the seas digs up not only – not only the ocean floor.
But also the ancient history of mankind. This article was originally published by Business Insider. More from Business Insider: Despite previous attacks, Medicare for All proved to be a big winner for Bernie Sanders for the third consecutive primary, according to polls.This is where the USA UU. It falls into the ‘Great Gatsby Curve’, a condemnatory table that economists use to track inequality in each country.
Amazon’s ‘Hunters’ creator says he has ideas for 5 seasons of the new television series starring Al Pacino. The oceans cover most of the Earth, including its longest mountain range and the ancient bridges that humans crossed to reach other continents. In a recent remake of a NASA video in 2008, planetary scientist James O’Donoghue shows what it would look like if all the water drained.
Aevealing the three-fifth hidden parts of the Earth’s surface. O’Donoghue works at the Japanese space agency, JAXA, and was previously at NASA. For the video, he took an animation that NASA physicist and animator Horace Mitchell created in 2008 and gave him some additions. He edited the timing and added a tracker to show how much water drained throughout the animation.
Here is its slow motion version: As the oceans slowly lose water, the first pieces of hidden land that emerge are the continental shelves, the underwater edges of each continent. I slowed the startup speed because, surprisingly. There is a lot of underwater landscape instantly revealed in the first tens of meters,” O’Donoghue told Business Insider in an email.
The continental shelves include some of the land bridges that the first humans crossed while migrating from continent to continent. Tens of thousands of years ago, our ancestors could walk from continental Europe to the United Kingdom, from Siberia to Alaska, and from Australia to the surrounding islands. When the last ice age occurred, a lot of ocean water was locked like ice at the planet’s poles.
That’s why there used to be land bridges, O’Donoghue said. Each of these links allowed humans to migrate, and when the ice age ended, water sealed them. By removing that water, the animation offers a glimpse into the world of our ancient ancestors. It also shows the longest mountain range on Earth, which appears once sea levels have dropped from 2,000 to 3,000 meters.
That is the crest of the middle ocean, which spans more than 37,000 miles worldwide. More than 90% are underwater. The volcanic mountains arise from the seams where Earth’s tectonic plates move away from each other, creating a new ocean floor as molten rock rises beneath the plant’s crust.
Global map of the mountains of the middle ocean ridge: The almost continuous global crest system of the mid-ocean winds through the surface of the Earth like the seams of a baseball. Once the animated oceans drain 6,000 meters, most of the water is gone.
But it takes almost another 5,000 meters to empty the deepest sections of the Mariana Trench. I like how this animation reveals that the ocean floor is as variable and interesting in its geology as the continents, said O’Donoghue. He added that emptying the seas unearthed not only “not only the ocean floor, but also the ancient history of mankind.”
Exposure and life in the lives of students: what K2-18B taught science writing about America. Scientists recently announced the discovery of water at a distance of 110 light years on planet K2-18b, leading to a media crash. The news, including a piece I wrote, was heralded as the first discovery of water on a “potentially habitable” planet outside our solar system.
The impact of the astronomy community was rapid. A group of critics said on Twitter that although K2-18b orbits its host star within a range, astronomers call the habitable zone that the planet is the hottest and plenty to support life. It is under more pressure.
The sentiments expressed in an American scientific essay by astronomer Laura Kreidberg of Harvard University were typical of many in the community. Kreidberg’s article suggested that the media was a “crying wolf” and that scientists, press officials, and the press contributed to misrepresent the story.
But to describe K2-18b as a potentially habitable planet, journalists accurately reported the views of the scientists who led one of the research studies. Those scientists repeatedly told reporters that the planet was “potentially habitable,” and continued to do so when specific criticism was presented to their peers.
This episode highlights a longstanding theme: How should science journalists cover the progress of incremental research, especially when the underlying science is unbalanced? Recent history gives us many examples of how these so-called unique study stories can go wrong.
One of the most notable was coverage of Lancet’s 1998 article in which Andrew Wakefield and his co-authors proposed that a combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine be linked to autism and intestinal disease. In another high-profile case published in Science in 2004 and 2005, a group led by Hwang Woo-suk claimed that it cloned human embryonic stem cells for the first time.
Both investigative efforts were later slandered. In the case of the Wakefield Papers, the selection of the sample group was biased, there were undisclosed vested interests, and the authors made several claims that did not withstand scrutiny. In 2010 the document was withdrawn. Woo-suk’s papers were simply fraudulent.
I suggest that both cases are outliers; The media, like the magazines themselves, were misled by researchers who had an agenda or were simply dishonest about their results. However, even when scientists act in harmony, things can go wrong. It is legitimate to ask those at the highest level of their profession to give their opinions on their own work, even if that opinion is speculative and disagrees with what their rivals and coworkers say. But some are provisional.
First, a journalist must always reflect unsatisfactory views. Unfortunately, too much if much of the K2-18b story coverage failed to do so, as is the case with all individual study stories. (My own coverage of K2-18b was initially criticized for not including enough vocals.) Many journalists believe that if the investigation is published in a peer-reviewed journal, it is credible. It should be, and they make the mistake of inadvertently reporting investigations.
As I suggested in an article for BBC News, our job as science journalists is to challenge everything we say. This is especially the case now as more of us report on controversial issues, such as genetically modified crops, cloning, and climate change, which have complex political and scientific dimensions.
But even in the case of discoveries in basic science, in scope, for example, anthropology or dark energy, there is often a lot of debate. The standard narrative, “People used to think of X and now, because of the discovery that they think of Y,” is not the way science works, and it creates very clearly boring imitations.
Two exoplanets from super Earth, K2-18b and c, the artist’s concept revolves around the red dwarf star K2-18. A second condition is that not all voices are the same. The opinions of people who are not specially qualified in the field of research have less weight than those. Like many serious journalism platforms, BBC News, where I work, has a strict policy of balance and fairness. In the decades
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