The ALMA Bipolar Planetary Nebula In Formation

The ALMA Bipolar Planetary Nebula

The ALMA bipolar planetary nebula in formation, W43A, is an aged star located 7,000 light years away in the constellation Aquila. W43A, an old star located 7,000 light years away in the constellation Aquila, a high-speed bipolar jet less than 60 years old, according to new research published in the astrophysics magazine Letters. W43 An impression of an artist.

NAOJ’s picture. “Sun-like stars turn reddish-brown pigments in the last stages of their lives. Then, the star expelled the gas to form a relic like a nebula, “Dr. Daniel Tafoya, astronomer and co-worker at the Technological University of Chalmers, Sweden.

There is a great variation in the shape of the planet’s nebula: some are spherical, but others are dipolar or show complex structures. Astronomers are interested in the origin of this variety, but hide the thick dust and gas system expelled by an old star and make it difficult to investigate the internal functioning of the process.

To tackle this problem, astronomers used the Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array (ALMA) matrix to observe the W43A. Thanks to the high resolution of ALMA, they obtained a very detailed view of the location around the W43A. The most notable structure is its small dipole jet, Drs. Tafoya said.

The researchers found that the speed of the jet is approximately 175 km / s (109 mi / s), which is much higher than previous estimates. Based on this speed and the size of the plane, they calculated that the age of the plane was less than human life. ALMA image of the W43A system.

And high-speed dipole jets ejected from the central aged star are seen in blue and the low velocity outflow is shown in green, and dust clouds imposed by the jet are shown in orange. ALMA image of the W43A system; High velocity dipole jets ejected from the central aged star appear in blue, the low velocity outflow is shown in green.

And the dusty clouds planted by the jets are shown in orange. Image of ALMA / ESO / NAOJ / NRAO / Tafoya et al. Taking into account Jet’s youth compared to the general life of a star. It is safe to say that we are seeing the exact moment when the jets began to push through the surrounding gas, “said Dr. Tafoya.

“The jet passes through the surrounding material in approximately 60 years. A person can see his progress throughout his life. ” The image of ALMA clearly shows the distribution of dust clouds exerted by the jet, which shows that it is impacting the surroundings.

This barrier could be the key to creating a bipolar planetary nebula,” the scientists said. In our scenario, the aged star basically expels the gas spherically and the star’s core loses its envelope. “If the star has a partner, the partner’s gas is poured over the dying star’s core, and a part of this new gas forms a jet.”

Therefore, whether or not the old star’s partner is an important factor in determining the structure of the resulting planetary nebula. W43A is one of the strangest objects called ‘water sources’, Dr. Hiroshi Imai, a researcher at Kagoshima University, said.

“These are old stars that show specific radio emissions from water molecules. Our observations of ALMA lead us to think that the water heated to generate radio emissions is in the region of interface between the jet and the surrounding material. “Perhaps the sources of all these ‘water sources’ include a central binary system, which has just launched a new double jet for the W43A.”

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