That Is Why The Particle 'X17' And A New Fifth Force Probably Do Not Exist

That Is Why The Particle ‘X17’ And A New Fifth Force Probably Do Not Exist

That is why the particle ‘X17‘ and a new fifth force probably do not exist. Each time, there is an experiment in physics that gives a result that is inconsistent with the universe as we understand it today. Sometimes, this is nothing more than an error inherent in the execution of a specific design or a particular experiment.

On other occasions, it is an analysis error, where the way in which the experimental results are interpreted is to blame. On other occasions. The experiment is correct but there is an error in the theoretical predictions, assumptions or hypotheses that were used to extract predictions that did not match the experiment. 

By the way, below is the list of scientific possibilities, the assumption that we have really discovered something new for the universe. It is not limited to historical examples (such as the infamous “Oops-Leone” particle, a severe statistical fluctuation that was confused with a Upsellon particle predicted and discovered elsewhere), but also includes modern examples (Since 2010) such as:

The fastest neutrino outcome of the OPERA experiment, which was discovered due to faulty equipment. For example, the way carbon is formed in the universe is through a triple alpha process: where three helium nuclei (with 2 protons and 2 neutron apes) merge into beryllium-8, which is the first to decompose.

It lasts only a small fraction of seconds. If you can get a third helium core there fast enough, before beryllium-8 returns to two heliums, it can produce carbon-12 in an excited state, which is normal after releasing a gamma. It will decompose again to carbon-12 – Re.

While this occurs easily in the stars in the giant red phase, it is a difficult interaction to test in the laboratory, since it requires controlling the nucleus in an unstable state of high energy. However, all we can do is produce beryllium-8, quite easily. We do this by not combining two helium-4 nuclei, but by combining lithium-7 (with 3 protons and 4 neutrons) with a proton, forming beryllium-8 in an excited state.

In theory, that beryllium-8 must decompose into two helium-4 nuclei, but since we formed it in an excited state, it would have to emit a gamma-ray photon before it could decompose. If we make beryllium-8 at rest, then that photon must have a predicted energy distribution.

To preserve both energy and momentum, your photon must have a probability distribution of how much kinetic energy it has in relation to the initial beryllium-8 nucleus. However, above a certain energy, you may not get a photon at all.

Because of Einstein’s E, you may find an electron and its antimatter equivalent, a particle-antiparticle pair instead of a positron. Depending on the energy and velocity of the photons.

We would expect to have a specific distribution of the angles that form the electrons and the positrons with each other: many events with small angles between them, and then decrease continuously As their angle of incidence increases, below a minimum frequency, when it reaches 180 °.

In 2015, a Hungarian team led by Attila Krosznahorke made this measurement and discovered something surprising: its results did not match the standard predictions of nuclear physics. Instead, once it reaches an angle of approximately 140 °, it obtains a small but significant excess of events. This is known as the Atomoki anomaly, and with the meaning of the 6.8 sigma.

It seems to be much more than a statistical fluctuation, the team has given an extraordinary explanation of why it is due to a new lighter light. The effect of which could never be detected before. But an experiment in a place with an unexpected result is not equivalent to a new scientific advance.

In a sense, this is an indication of a new physics, if many possible explanations are correct. In the worst case, it is a complete mistake. However, the reason for all the recent attention is that the same team conducted a new experiment, where they created a helium-4 nucleus in a very excited state, one that would later decompose by emitting a gamma-ray photon.

At sufficiently high energies, gamma rays will again produce pairs of electrons / positrons, and in a certain range of energy, they will look for a change in their opening angle. They found that another asymmetric increase appeared at a different (lower) angle, but with the same energy as the anomalies observed in the first experiment.

This time, the affirmation of statistical significance is 7.2-sigma. Which also seems to be much greater than the statistical fluctuations. In addition, this seems to correspond to a particular explanation: a new particle, a new interaction and a new fundamental force.

The results of the collaboration with XENON that depend on the turn and the independent turn show no evidence ……. [+] of a new particle of any mass, including a light-dark matter scenario and that encompasses the atomic anomaly or moderately heavy The black material will fit with a new particle must be known directly and clearly before being accepted as ‘real’, and so far X17 has not appeared in every direct detection experiment.

Let’s go deeper, now, to see what is really happening in the experiment, if we can discover the weak points: the places where we are likely to get an error, if it exists. Although it is now being carried out in a second experiment. Two experiments were performed using the same technique and the same technique with the same researchers.

In physics, we need independent confirmation, and this confirmation is the opposite of independent. Second, there are independent experiments that should have done or seen this particle, if it exists. Dark Matter’s discoveries should see evidence of this. They do not.

The lepton collider that produces electron positron collisions at these relevant energies should see evidence of this particle and along the same lines as the cosmic boy who cried wolf. This is at least the fourth new particle announced by this team, including an anomaly of the 2001 era (9 MeV).

An anomaly of the 2005 era (multiparticles) and a 2008 -Yug (12 MeV) discrepancy, all of which have been defamed. But the most dubious evidence against comes from the data itself. Take a look at the graph above, where you can see the calibration data (low energy) in blue.

Do you realize that the curve (solid line) connects the data very well (black dots)? Except, is it between approximately 100 ° and 125 °? In those cases, the data is a poor fit that is taken as “a good calibration”, as more events should be observed. If you only consider data between 100/ 125 °, you will never use this calibration.

This is unacceptable. Then, they redistribute that fraction to request high energy data (blue line in relief), and low and admiring. This is a great calibration to reach about 100*. At that time you begin to see an excess of signal Despite the quality or defective calibration.

There is no physical reason for two separate experiments (helium and beryllium) to produce signals at different angles. This is what we call a “sketch” and confirms why we actually confirm that we are independent. Accelerator models, used to bombard lithium and manufacture B-8 in use that first … [+] show an unexpected discrepancy in the angles between electrons and positrons.

The team first reported that it found particle marks in 2016, and now they report more brands in a separate experiment. If the results are confirmed, particle X17 could help explain dark matter and scientists of mysterious matter believe that the universe contains more than 80% of the mass. It can be the bearer of a ‘fifth force’ beyond four in the standard model of physics: gravity, electromagnetism, weak atomic force and strong atomic force.

Destroy Atoms

Most researchers looking for new particles use accelerators that simultaneously destroy microscopic particles at high speeds and release explosions. The largest of these accelerators is the Large Hadron Collider in Europe, where a particle scientist named Higgs Boson was discovered in 2012, who had been hunting for decades.

Professor Krasznahorkay and his co-authors have taken a different approach, conducting small experiments that trigger subatomic particles called protons in the nuclei of different atoms. In 2016, he saw pairs of electrons and positrons when the beryllium-8 nucleus went from a high energy state to a low energy state.

He found deviations from what he expected to see when there was a large angle between the electron and the positron. This discrepancy can be better explained if the nucleus emitted an unknown particle that was subsequently divided into an electron and a positron.

This particle has to become a boson, which is the type of particle that carries the force, and its mass will be about 17 million electron volts. It is heavy like 34 electrons, which is quite light for such a particle. The Higgs boson, for example, is more than 10,000 times heavier.

Because of his mass, Professor Kursenjork and his team called the imaginary particle X17. They have now observed a strange behavior in the helium-4 nucleus that can also be explained by the presence of X17. This last discrepancy is statistically significant.

A confidence level of seven sigma, which means that there is only a very small probability that the result is a coincidence. This is beyond the usual Five Sigma standard for a new discovery, so the result seems to be that there is some new physics here.

However, in 2016 the new announcement and one faced suspicions of the physical community, the kind of doubt that did not exist when the two teams together announced the discovery of the Higgs Boson in 2012. So why is it so difficult for physicists to believe in a new boson of light as if it could exist?

First, such experiments are difficult and, therefore, data analysis. The signs may appear and disappear. In 2004, for example, in Debrecen, the group found evidence that they explained the possible existence of a similar boson, but the signal disappeared when they repeated the experiment.

Secondly, one must ensure that the existence of X17 is consistent with the results of other experiments. In this case, the results with beryllium in 2016 and the new result with helium can be explained by the existence of X17.

But an independent investigation by an independent group is still required. In 2012, in a workshop in Italy, Professor Boszanark and his group first reported weak evidence (at the level of three sigma) for a new boson. Since then, the team repeated the experiment with advanced equipment and successfully reproduced the results of beryllium-8.

Which is reassuring, since helium-4 has new results. These new results were presented at the HIAS 2019 Symposium of the National University of Australia in Canberra. What does this have to do with dark matter?

Scientists believe that most of the matter in the universe is invisible to us. The so-called dark matter will only interact very weakly in the general case. We can speculate that it is present because of its gravitational effect on distant stars and galaxies, but that it has never been detected in the laboratory.

So where does the X17 come from?

In 2003, one of us (Boehm) showed that there could be a particle like X17, which works with Pierre Fayette and is single. It moves between particles of dark matter in the same way that photons. Aarticles of light, do so for ordinary matter.

In the scenarios I propose, lighter dark particles can sometimes form pairs of electrons and positrons, similar to Professor Gersenhork’s team. This scenario has led to several discoveries in low energy experiments.

Which have rejected many possibilities. However, X17 has not yet been ruled out, in which case the Debrecen group has explored how dark matter particles communicate in the world. The X17 particle can solve the mystery of dark matter:

Professor Attila Korszonhorke and his colleagues from ATOMKI (Hungarian Debrecen Nuclear Research Institute) recently published an article that hints at the existence of a previously unknown subatomic particle called [X17]. The team first reported that it found particle marks in 2016, and now they report more brands in a separate experiment.

If the results are confirmed, particle X17 can help explain dark matter and scientists of mysterious matter believe that the universe contains more than 80% of the mass. It can be the carrier of a ‘fifth force’ beyond four in the standard model of physics: gravity, electromagnetism, weak atomic force and strong atomic force.

Most researchers looking for new particles use highly accelerators that simultaneously destroy microscopic particles at high speeds and leave the explosion. The largest of these accelerators is the Large Hadron Collider in Europe. Where the Higgs Boson, a particle scientist who had been hunting for decades, was discovered in 2012.

Professor Krasznahorkay and his co-authors have taken a different approach, conducting small experiments that trigger subatomic particles called protons in the nuclei of different atoms. In 2016, they observed pairs of electrons and positrons when the beryllium-8 nucleus went from a high energy state to a low energy state.

This last discrepancy is statistically significant: a confidence level of seven sigma, which means that there is only a very small probability that the result is coincident. This is beyond the usual five sigma standard for a new discovery, so the result seems to be that there is some new physics here.

However, the new announcement in 2016 and one encountered skepticism from the physical community.The kind of skepticism that did not exist when the two teams together announced the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

So why is it so difficult for physicists to believe in a new light boson as if it could exist?

Since then, the team repeated the experiment with advanced equipment and successfully reproduced the results of beryllium-8, which is reassuring, since helium-4 has new results. These new results were presented at the HIAS 2019 Symposium of the National University of Australia in Canberra.

What does this have to do with dark matter?

Scientists believe that most of the matter in the universe is invisible to us. The so-called dark matter will only interact with the general case in a very weak way. We can speculate that it exists from its gravitational effects on distant stars and galaxies, but it has never been detected in the laboratory. In 2003, one of us (Boehm) showed that there can be a particle like X17, which works with Pierre Fayette and is single.

More proof is required

Although the results of Debrecen are very interesting, the physical community will not be convinced that a new particle has been found until independent confirmation. Therefore, we can expect many experiments around the world that are looking for a new light boson to start looking for evidence of X17 and its interactions with pairs of electrons and positrons.

If confirmed, the next discovery may be the Dark Matter particle itself. Factor X17: a new particle for physics can solve the mystery of dark matter. Most researchers who hunt for new particles use accelerators.

Why Dark Matter?

Ancient rocks tell us a lot about the history of the Earth and can indicate cosmic encounters of billions of years with dark matter. Attila J. Koszanhorke & his colleagues have taken a different approach at Atomki (Atomic Research Institute in Debrecen, Hungary).

Conducting small experiments that trigger subatomic particles called protons in the nuclei of different atoms. In 2016, they observed the addition of electrons and positrons (antimatter versions of electrons) when the beryllium-8 core went from a high energy state to a low energy state.

This discrepancy can be better explained if the nucleus emitted an unknown particle that was subsequently "divided" into an electron and a positron.

Large Hadron Collider

Photo: Most researchers looking for new particles use heavy accelerators like the Large Hadron Collider in Europe. Because of its mass, Krasznahorkay and his team called the imaginary particle X17.

This last discrepancy is statistically significant: a confidence level of seven sigma. However, the new announcement in 2016 and one encountered skepticism from the physical community, the kind of skepticism that did not exist when the two teams together announced the discovery of the Higgs Boson in 2012.

So why is it so difficult for physicists to believe in a new light boson as if it could exist? First, such experiments are difficult and, therefore, data analysis. The signals may appear and disappear. In 2004, for example, in Debrecen, the group found evidence that they interpreted the possible existence of a similar lighter boson.

What does this have to do with dark matter?

Scientists believe that most of the matter in the universe is invisible to us. The so-called dark matter will only interact with the general case in a very weak way. We can speculate that it is present because of its gravitational effect on distant stars and galaxies, but it has never been detected in the laboratory.

What place is it made of? It’s complicated … There are inexplicably large voids of space, but what exactly is “empty”? In 2003, one of us (Boehm) showed that a particle like X17 could exist, working with Pierre Fayette and alone. It moves between dark matter particles in the same way as photons, or light particles, do for ordinary matter.

In the scenarios I propose, the lighter dark particles can sometimes form pairs of electrons and positrons that is similar to that observed by the Krasznahorkay team. Therefore, we can expect many experiments around the world in search of a new light boson to begin looking for evidence of X17 and its interactions with pairs of electrons and positrons.

If confirmed, the next discovery may be the Dark Matter particle. Celine Bohm directs the School of Physics at the University of Sydney. Tiber Kibedi is a principal investigator in nuclear physics at the National University of Australia. This article originally appeared in Conversation.

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