Plants Produce Ultrasonic Clicks Under Stress And Pain When They Are Under Stress or Pain, They Can be Heard by Bats And Mice: Research |
Plants produce ultrasonic clicks under stress

Plants produce ultrasonic clicks under stress and pain when they are under stress or pain, they can be heard by bats and mice: Research: Over the years, several studies have shown that there are much more sensitive plants than humans would like to believe.

In the first, scientists think there is evidence about the sound of plants.

According to research, plants produce sounds when they suffer from pain or stress. The sound, which is not audible to human ears, can also be heard by bats, rats and perhaps some other plants.

According to a report published in the Smithsonian, plants can make sounds when they are deprived of water or forced to suffer physical damage.

Research conducted by the University of Tel Aviv showed that tobacco and tomato plants produced sounds that could be recorded from a distance of 10 cm.

The research available at biorxiv.org stated: “We recorded ~ 65 dBSPL ultrasonic sounds at a distance of 10 cm from tomato and tobacco plants, which means that some organisms detect these sounds several meters away. It can be applied

We have developed 35 machine learning models that were able to distinguish between plant sounds and normal noise, and the identification of plant conditions (dry, cut or intact) was based only on the sounds emitted. Our results suggest that animals, humans and possibly other plants can also use the sounds emitted by the plant to obtain information about the state of the plant. “

Over the years, several studies have shown that there are much more sensitive plants than humans would like to believe. Some researchers also claim that plants respond to insect contact, sometimes they even sniff other plants.

František Baluska, a plant cell biologist at the University of Bonn, Germany, told the New York Times: “Plants are not just robots, stimulus response devices. They are living organisms that have their own problems, such once something that humans have pain in. ” Or feel happy. To navigate this complex life, they must have some compass. “

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Plants produce ultrasonic clicks under stress – A team of biologists from Tel-Aviv University of Israel discovered that stressed plants emit sounds, similarly in many animals, no ultrasonic clicks detectable by human ears were used, and they discovered that plant sounds contain information about the plant. physical condition.

Rotten tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) emit airborne and remotely identifiable sounds.

“The plants exhibited significant changes in their phenotype in response to stress. They differ visually with respect to the color and shape of the different plants, “said Lilach Haydani, a professor of plant science and food safety at the University of Tel-Aviv and her colleagues.

“They also emit volatile organic compounds, for example, when exposed to drought or vegetables.

These compounds can also affect neighboring plants, resulting in the growth of these plants.” “In general, it has been shown that plants produce visual, chemical and tactile signals to which other organisms may occasionally respond.

However, the ability of plants to emit air has not been adequately explored.” In the study, researchers determined to test whether plants produce informative sounds, which could serve as potential signals or signals for their environment.

They built a recording system, in which each plant was recorded simultaneously with two microphones inside a separate box.

They focused on the range of ultrasonic sound (20-150 kHz), where the background noise is weak.

The team recorded tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) under different treatments: drought stress, stem truncation and control.

Spectrum of sounds emitted by stressed plants

The number of sounds emitted by plants stressed by drought was approximately 35 and 11 per hour for tomatoes and tobacco, respectively, and tomato and tobacco plants cut 25 and 15 sounds per hour, respectively.

In contrast, the number of sounds emitted by the plants of all control groups was less than one per hour.

“First we rely on our knowledge that stressed plants listen to sounds that blow in the air, which can also be recorded in acoustic chambers and greenhouses,” the scientists said. 

“We recorded 65 dBSPL (dB of sound pressure level). The ultrasonic sound of tomato and tobacco plants is 4 inches (10 cm), which means that these sounds are detected several feet (meters) away from some organisms. You can go. “

Professor Hadney and his co-authors also developed machine learning models that could distinguish between plant sounds and common noises, and the identification of plant conditions (dry, cut or intact) was based only on the sounds emitted.

“Our results suggest that animals, humans and possibly other plants can also use the sounds emitted by a plant to obtain information about the state of the plant,” he said.

“More research on bioactactics of plants in particular, and sound emissions in plants in particular, can open new avenues for understanding their interactions with plants and the environment, and can also have a significant impact on agriculture.”

Plants can ‘talk’ by clicking on their ‘root’: “The plants exhibited significant changes in their phenotype in response to stress. They differ visually with respect to the color and shape of the different plants, “said Lilach Haydani, a professor of plant science and food safety at the University of Tel-Aviv and her colleagues.

“They also emit volatile organic compounds, for example, when exposed to drought or vegetables. These compounds can also affect neighboring plants, resulting in the growth of these plants.” “In general, it has been shown that plants produce visual, chemical and tactile signals to which other organisms may occasionally respond. However, the ability of plants to emit air has not been adequately explored.”

Plants produce ultrasonic clicks under stress: a team of biologists from the Tel-Aviv University of Israel discovered that stressed plants emit sounds, similarly in many animals, no ultrasonic clicks detectable by human ears were used, and they discovered that Plant sounds contain information about the plant. physical condition.

Rotten tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) emit sounds in the air and remotely identifiable. In the study, researchers determined to test whether plants produce informative sounds, which could serve as potential signals or signals for their environment.

They built a recording system, in which each plant was recorded simultaneously with two microphones inside a separate box. They focused on the range of ultrasonic sound (20-150 kHz), where the background noise is weak. The team recorded tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) under different treatments: drought stress, truncation and stem control.

Spectrum of sounds emitted by stressed plants. Image credit: Khait et al, doi: 10.1101 / 507590. The number of sounds emitted by plants stressed by drought was approximately 35 and 11 per hour for tomatoes and tobacco, respectively, and tomato and tobacco plants They cut 25 and 15 sounds per hour, respectively. In contrast, the number of sounds emitted by the plants of all control groups was less than one per hour.

“First we rely on our knowledge that stressed plants listen to the sounds that blow in the air, which can also be recorded in acoustic chambers and greenhouses,” the scientists said. “We recorded 65 dBSPL (dB sound pressure level). The ultrasonic sound of tomato and tobacco plants is 4 inches (10 cm), which means that these sounds are detected several feet (meters) away from some organisms. You can leave. “

Professor Hadney and his co-authors also developed machine learning models that could distinguish between plant sounds and common noises, and the identification of plant conditions (dry, cut or intact) was based only on the sounds emitted.

“Our results suggest that animals, humans and possibly other plants can also use the sounds emitted by a plant to obtain information about the state of the plant,” he said.

“More research on bioactactics of plants in particular, and sound emissions in plants in particular, can open new avenues for understanding their interactions with plants and the environment, and can also have a significant impact on agriculture.”

Plants produce ultrasonic clicks under stress: a team of biologists from the Tel Aviv University of Israel discovered that stressed plants emit sounds, similarly in many animals, from any ultrasonic click detected by human ears. It was not used, and they discovered that plant sounds were revealed to the plant.

Physical condition. Rotten tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) emit air and are remotely recognizable.

Researchers conducted tests to determine if plants produce informative sounds, which could serve as potential signals or signals for their environment. “The plants exhibited significant changes in their phenotype in response to stress.

They differ in relation to the color and size of different plants, “said Lilac Haydani, professor of botany and food safety at the University of Tel Aviv and colleagues,” They also emit volatile organic compounds, p. For the When exposed to dried or vegetables. These compounds can also affect neighboring plants, resulting in the growth of these plants.

In general, it has been shown that plants produce visual, chemical and tactile signals to which other organisms may occasionally respond. However, the ability of plants to emit air has not been adequately explored. “They created a recording system, in which each plant was recorded simultaneously with two microphones inside a separate box.

They focused on the range of ultrasonic sound (20–150 kHz).), Where the background noise weakened. The team recorded tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants under different treatments: drought stress, pruning and stem control Spectrum sounds of rostral plants Image credit: Khet et al., Doi: 10.11101 / 5090590.

The number of sounds of plants stressed by drought was approximately 35 and 11 per hour for tomatoes and tobacco, respectively, and Tomato and tobacco plants cut 25 and 15 sounds per hour, respectively, in contrast, the number of sounds emitted it was less than an hour through the plants of all the control groups. “First, we rely on our knowledge that thrust plants hear sounds flying in the air, which can also be recorded in ca acoustic maras and greenhouses, “the scientists said. “We have 65 dBSPL (dB of Sound Pressure Level) entered.

The ultrasonic sound of tomato and tobacco plants is 4 inches (10 cm), which means that these sounds are detected several feet (meters) away from some organisms. You can leave. ” Professor Hadney and his co-authors also developed machine learning models that could distinguish between plant sounds and normal noises, and identify plant conditions (dry, cut or intact) as only emitted sounds. It was based on. “Our results suggest that animals, humans and possibly other plants also use sounds emitted by a plant to obtain information about the position of the plant.

You can use it,” he said. “More research, especially in plant bioactactics, and especially emissions of sound in plants, it can open new avenues to understand their interactions with plants and the environment, and also in agriculture. It can have a significant impact. “

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Plants talk, plants listen, here’s how: They have no eyes. Or the ear or what we call a nervous system. But plants can talk. And they listen. Tell me how.

First, we need to eat the plant. It’s great: It’s an aphid, a hungry little bitter who likes to eat on fresh, green leaves… Next, we arrange a meal. We pick a bunch of young, healthy bean plants with broad, green leaves.. We then carefully drop our aphids (which make many aphids) into the bean plant, where they begin to chew on the ground. Aphids spread throughout the plant, cutting a leafy surface and cutting into small pieces of green to form holes.

When a leaf plant is attacked, it does not sit quietly. १ 198 33 Two scientists, Jack Schultes and Ian Baldwin, report that young maple boats exposed by insects extract a group of chemicals that float in the air. You and I won’t miss it, but these chemicals smell a bit like the neighbor’s plants can detect. It’s like a little scream.

These chemicals come from the injured parts of the plant and cause alarms to sound. Probably not like the warning, “Look! Aphid attack!” But more like a common crisis call, “Aphids! Aphids! Aphids!” Or, “Attack! Attack!” Chemicals that block plants through the air are a mixture of organic molecules – alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and esters – volatile organic compounds, known as abbreviated VOCs.

In the past 6 years, scientists have discovered that all kinds of trees and shrubs, such as sagebrush, barley, corn, and yes, beam plants release VOCs when they are attacked. It’s a plant crying. But is anyone listening? Clearly. Because we can see the reaction of our neighbors.

In our case, when the problem signal reaches two peanut plants on either side of our aphid cover plant, they cry VOCs – on their own. As you can see, they seemed to be calling for help – that’s my imaginary way of describing what happened.

Some bean plant plants pump chemicals specifically designed to keep aphids away. They are deodorant irritants, especially harmful to attackers. But some bean plants do double duty. They attract – perfume designed for greed in various air-flying insects – in this case, prostitutes. This wall is an aphid’s worst nightmare. Once they arrive, the appreciation changes. The food that was being eaten was now breakfast.

Study after study, this chemical interaction helps the neighbors. Damage is generally widespread in the first plant, but neighbors, in comparison, remain insect resistant. Clearly, they sound the alarm and know what to do.

Does this mean that plants talk to each other? Did the plant knowingly send its warning in some way? Was this Paul Revere? Scientists do not know. The first plant may have just been suffering or sent messages to its own branch, and thus was actually talking to itself (scientists called it “bizarre”). Maybe the neighbors “hear” the cry. So the information was exchanged, but this was not true, deliberately back and forth.

Still, the more they look, the more scientists chat about plants. “It’s amazing,” Ted Farmer of Logan University told Quanta magazine. “I’m surprised.”

Not only do plants use chemicals in the air, they send signals to the ground, from their roots. It takes some ultrasonic “clicks”. What feels like a quiet day in the jungle is really clicking, planting, stopping, rushing.

And sometimes selecting lines of species. Scientists replicated an animal attack in the age group. In the American West, prague antelids regularly catch sagebrush with teeth and chop off leaves as they eat.

In the lab version, as soon as the animal’s teeth rip off age leaves, scientists send a chemical signal to the sage plant in the air and see it as a signal to the nearby organism, and then emit an odor that causes the animal. It was harmful – kill the deer – protect yourself, and, of course, help dad. What a complex dance! Charles Darwin imagined a world that was even more intimate – 150,000 years ago, to see and hear than the world’s busiest and greatest people. Our senses are weak. The world is passing Darwin was aware of it. “Keep in mind how the relationship of all biological beings to be infinitely fit is related to one another,” he wrote. I like that expression, “infinitely close-fitting.” This is suggesting that is going well, and we are just hearing our first glimpse.

Astronomers map out the supermassive black hole: As the physical spiral is directed in the direction of the black hole, it is heated and emitted by an x-ray, which, in turn, causes resonances and resonances when interacting with nearby gas. Due to the extreme nature and serious gravity of the black hole crossing, these areas of space are very distorted and distorted. Now, a team of astronomers and astronomers has used the ESA XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory to track these light echoes and map around the black hole in the highly variable active galaxy SAS १2२२-3-80809.

These images show the black hole environment XMM – mapped to atmospheric gas at the ESA Newton X-ray Observatory. As soon as the material enters the black hole, it rotates as an imprinted disc, shown here, as the temperature rises. In the center of the disc, near the black hole, a region of very hot electrons, with a temperature of about one billion degrees known as the corona, produces high-energy x-rays flowing into space. According to Alston et al. Resonance of this radiation, such as XML-Newton to depict the character around the black hole. He raided the black hole at the center of the active Galaxy IRAS १ 13२२-3-999, which is one of the most variable X-ray sources in the sky, with a very large and rapid instability in the brightness of a factor of 50० in just several hours. By going through this x-ray echo tracking, it is possible to detect by itself the dynamic behavior of the crown from which rapid x-ray emission is achieved. The crown is shown here as an area that changes in shape and floats in shiny, black holes. Researchers discovered that the black hole crown within IRAS २२2२२-3-8099 changed incredibly fast in a few days.

IRAS १2२२24–3809, also known as LEDA 8 8883535 and २MASX J13251937-3824524, is about a billion light years away in the Centaurus constellation. The galaxy places a supermassive black hole of relatively small mass (about a million solar masses) at its center.

It is one of the most variable X-ray sources in the sky, experiencing very large and rapid instabilities in the factor glow of factor कारक within a few hours. Everyone knows how different their voices are when they speak in class than in the cathedral. This is simply due to the geometry and the contents of the room, which treats the sound differently and bounces. Take it, Dr. Said William Elton, an astrophysicologist at the University of Cambridge.

Similarly, we can see how the X-ray radiation echoes propagate closer to the black hole before the geometry of the area and the position of the substance come out. It is like the location of the cosmic e.

The dynamics consumption of impact gas is linked to the properties of black hole consumption, Drs. William and his colleagues were able to determine the mass and mode of a supermassive black hole in IRAS १ 13२२-3-80809in, as it was submerged inside, observing the properties of the substance.

When the black hole falls, the inductive material takes the form of a disc. In this disc there is a region of very hot electrons, with a temperature of about one billion degrees, called the corona.

Although the researchers expected to see the resonance echoes used to map the geometry of the region, they also saw something unexpected: within a few days the crown itself changed incredibly quickly.

Dr. William said, “When the crown changes shape, the light echoes: if the ceiling of the cathedral rises up and falls, it changes lightly and its sound resonates,” said Dr. William.

“By tracking the echo of light, we’ve been able to track this changed crown, and it’s even more fun: to get a better value for mass and black hole rotation, we could determine whether the crown is in shape.” I didn’t change. “We know that the mass of the black hole cannot decrease, so any change in the resonances must take place under the atmosphere.”

Scientists made the longest observation of the fastest black hole made with XMM-Newton, which was collected in space spacecraft more than १ space in 1 and 2 2016, accumulating in 3 million seconds in 23 days.

This, together with the strong and short-term variability of the black hole, allowed the team to model the resonance broadly over the day period.

Their results appear in the journal Nature Astronomy.

Bots can click their roots and talk to each other: Photo via Shutterstock: See what your family members say around you – they can hear you, and they are probably talking about you. The idea that plants communicate with each other is based on sci-fi or fantasy, but new research from the Western University suggests that this may indeed happen. UWA Postdoctoral Research Fellow DRS. Monica Gagliano found that our green friends not only react to the sounds, but they can also communicate with each other through “click sounds”.

Western Australia University, Plant Communication, Plants talk to each other, Dr. Monica Gagliano, Gagliano Bot, Botany, Ants, Plants Talk. The gardeners have long believed that the music they play affects their plant growth, but Drs. Gagliano’s research with University of Bristol (UK) professor Daniel Robert and Florence University (Italy) professor Stefano Manasuco shows that young plants react to roots and special sounds.

“Everyone knows that plants respond to light, and scientists also know that plants use volatile chemicals to communicate with each other, for example, when the threat – like a vegetarian – approach, “Dr. Gagliono said. “I was working in my herb garden one day and probably wondered if plants are sensitive to sound – why not?” – So I decided as a scientist to explore it. “

Through a series of DRS experiments. Gaglione and his team found that the root of the young corn plant had zero clicks. They also found that when the roots were suspended in water, they observed the source of any sound “emitted in the region of 1 Hz.” Interestingly, it is within this frequency range that the roots manifest themselves.

The team’s research, published in the major international journal Trends in Plant Science, concludes that the discovery of plant communication requires serious scrutiny because it “leaves serious gaps (our current understanding of the sensitivity and communication complexity of these organisms”). ” It is “the ability that some sensitivity to sound and vibration also play an important role in plant life.” So if you see the members of your household leaning towards you, they can enjoy the sound of your bouquet.

As RR Tolkien once wrote, “There was a hobby in the ground hole. Filled with dirt, filth, soaked holes, insects, and no odor, neither dry, bare or sandy holes were eaten. Or sit on it. . It’s a hob hole. Yes, and that means comfort. “The chickens that live in the hobbit coop will certainly agree with these handwritten copies by Wood Miracle! Each coop is made of kidneys from a human family and is capable of keeping -15-5 chickens – and you can customize it with colors, donors and your favorite interiors.

Hobbit hole coupes are available in many different models inspired by the Rearing Trilogy rear. Each nest box, feet mounted on the ground, is equipped with two windows and ventec floors for durability and durable durability. Optional features available to a truly dedicated puppy breeder include lift-out linoleum for easy cleaning, insulated flooring for cold weather and a variety of exterior paint options. With “power of ants and dwarves” outside the cedar, three different floor plans make your chickens jealous of the lion. However for one of these deals you should go looking for some Dragon Gold, as they start at around $ 2.5 billion.

Dr. A new study by Jefferson at Aberdeen University found that plants actually interact with each other in soil. Studies show that when vegetables are infected for certain diseases, they activate conscious genes of other nearby plants to overcome the disease that gets in their way. The key to this communication is the earthen fugitives who act as messengers.

New studies show that plants talk to each other through soil: Dr. A new study by David Johnson at the University of Aberdeen found that plants talk to each other in soil. Studies show that when vegetables are infected with certain diseases, they alert their nearest plants to activate genes to prevent the disease. The key to this communication is the earthen fugitives who act as messengers.

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Clay fungi and some plants have a symbiotic relationship, according to the research team, who shared their findings with The Economist. The plants feed and supply the Fuglas minerals. But now it replaces the phalangeal hyphae, which forms a soil network that connects various plants, playing another essential role as a messenger.

Related: Bright Bioluminescent Plants for Light Nature’s Path

At 3, a team of Chinese investigators found that when tomato plants infected the leaves, it was able to alert nearby tomato plants, which built their immune system. Dr. David Johnson and his team tried to find out which plants were able to communicate this information with broad bean plants.

To prove that the plants were communicating in the soil, the team created a “mesocosm” series of five bean plants. Aphids are often attacked in Simi. When this happens, they release a chemical that attracts repeated ammo and destroys the aphids.

Related: House Houseplants Feng Shui Your House

After the experiment began, all plants were covered with bags that brought carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water in and out, but prevented the release of large molecules, which could be used for lamp signals. Then four days after the end, a lattice of 5-ON m in each mesocosm was rotated to remove any hyphenite, and the central plant was exposed to aphids. “

You can read more about the experiment in The Economist, but control showed that bean plants actually communicate with each other in the soil when it was discovered that one of them had been attacked by aphids.

The three hunters instigated both online and in Nova Scotia’s tribal Mizmak people, considered sacred. These three unknown hunters were unaware of the animal’s spiritual significance after it was killed in the Cape Breton Highlands of Nova Scotia, Canada. It is because of the reaction to the photo (which has been deleted) on Facebook that the thighs realized the seriousness of their mistake.

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The Mikam people consider all white animals to be “spirit” animals and have known about the moose for years, but because of its importance in the community it is prevented from causing harm. Clifford Paul, the Moose Management Coordinator for the Institute for Natural Resources, highlighted what the cattle ranchers meant when they spoke to the CBC.

“We know its importance and we’ve been teaching it to non-native populations for years – it’s about the importance of this and other white animals playing in our lives,” he said. “We should not harm them in any way, shape or form, because they may be one of our ancestors who come to remind us what is important in our community.”

Jim Hanateux, who hunted and operated a taxpayers’ store in Lantz, informed the hunters about his crime after bringing his body to the store. He also expressed regret on behalf of the poachers:

“These are good people and they have not broken any laws and they have said that it would be good to know more about the importance of these white moose. Hopefully through too much information and doing this provide a catalyst for more Does.

As AFP reports, locals also vow to kill white animals that hunt poachers in Myanacama, allowing them to perform a four-day ceremony to honor the animals. While this may be enough to ease one’s anger, it has not been elaborated on why the hunter held the sacred pose in the form of a trophy.

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Scientists found that if the crop were grown, a simple genetic modification would have produced 2% percent less water than the plant water: An international team led by scientists from the University of Illinois discovered a specific protein called photosystem II subunit S (PSBS), which can be encouraged to partially shut down the intestines, causing plants and their environment Small holes allow for gas to be exchanged between.

Scientists estimate that plants can get more water without the need for carbon dioxide after the stomatal closure – atmospheric concentrations, which have risen nearly 25 percent in less than a century. “Development has not accelerated the pace of rapid change, so scientists have given it a helping hand,” said Stephen Long, co-author of the study and director of the International Research Project’s Release Growth Photosynthetic Efficiency (RIPE). . University of Illinois, University of Illinois scientist, scientist, botanist

As the world is aware of climate change, low water harvesting crops can be a game changer. “It’s a huge success,” La explained. “Crop production has steadily improved over the years, but the amount of water required to produce one ton of grain is unchanged – which many thought could not change this factor. Achieving this all-important goal for the future Further research and development must be opened up to do, proving that our theory works in practice. “

Related: How Faggi Maintained Earth’s Environment – A New Study

About 1 percent of the world’s fresh water supply is used for agricultural purposes. As populations grow and resources become stressful, more efficient plants can be a simple yet effective tool for maintaining healthy communities. The research team published its positive results on the revision of the circular plant; His next step is to do the same for cereal crops. “Making the crop more water usable is one of the biggest challenges for current and future plant scientists,” the study’s co-author, Johannes Kromdijk, said in a release. “Our results suggest that the PSBS expression allows crops to be more conservative with water use, which we think better distributes available water resources during the growing season and crops more productive during the dry season Helps make. “

The new circular bridge in Uruguay represents “a lagoon inside Rafael”, according to architect Rafael Violet. The bridge, which spans the Laguna Guardian between the cities of Rocha and Maldonado on the southern coast of Uruguay, replaces the traditional fleet crossing. The circular structure encourages traffic to slow down and allows drivers and pedestrians to take a look at their crosses.

Violet, a Uruguay-based architect based in New York, says, “The concept of Puente Laguna Garzón is to change the traditional ride mode to an event that reduces car speed, allowing panoramic views across the stunning landscape , And at the same time become hiking centers. “

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Upon entering the circular section of the bridge, two-lane traffic splits and logging is expected to carry 5,3 cars per day. Pedestrians are located on either side of the traffic lane, which encourages tourists to use the bridge for recreation. The bridge project was constructed by Eduardo Constantini, who is responsible for tourist development on the Rocha side of the bridge.

Architecture, Circular Pool, Uruguay, Rafael Vinoli Architects, Infrastructure, Engineering, Environmental Development, Uruguay Tourism. “It is an iconic architectural piece that will be a catalytic factor in driving Rocha’s coastal development, especially for the preservation of direct contact with nature. Only 35 percent of the land can be developed between the two gardens and a percentage of green.” Must be dedicated to the areas, ”said Costantini.

Despite these environmental protections, local and environmental groups have faced opposition to the construction work, according to La National.

Related: Researchers Think Trees Can Have Their Own Internet: While scientists recently released their research in the Journal of Plant Physiology, according to scientists, there was no single scene that touched the plant. Instead, researchers focused on how plant genes expressed themselves differently in water. When they were sprayed and lasted only half an hour, the gene changed. Scientists determined that there were no ‘active compounds’ that could trigger change; Plants demonstrate that their external environment changes in response.

Gene changes in the plant occurred not only when the water was poured, but when people touched them with their fingers and tongs and the shadow fell on them as well. Principal investigator Olivier van Aken said this could happen as rain fell, due to wind gusts or scatter on the bug plant.

Olivier Van Aken – Van Aken, University of Western Australia, Botany, Botany, Botany, Botany, Research, Science, “Although people generally believe that plants don’t feel touched, they point out that They are actually very sensitive to this and this gene. Expression, defense and possibly redirecting their metabolism to its cause. Kcha. “

Why can plants react to this? They seem to be protecting themselves or even increasing environmental conditions, such as increased water or light.

Van Eakin said, “Unlike animals, plants are unable to survive harmful situations. Instead, plants feel they have a complex way of understanding their environments and helping them to detect and respond appropriately. Have developed stress protection systems. The discovery reveals the different types of interactions we have with plants. When yes, plants don’t complain if I flower. Plays the pinch, I show them I am, or as I brush through them that we go, they are offering fully aware of this contact and very fast response to our treatment. “

At the top of the Milky Way, there are mysterious clouds that zoom into place at high speeds, and we’ve finally unlocked a key that helps us understand those things. Using a telescope, a scientist has created a detailed map of clouds, revealing clamps, branches, and filaments that had never been seen before.

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An astronomer at the Radio Astronomy Research Node of the University of Western Australia. Tobias Westmeier created a map that would help us understand these space phenomena. It showed large clouds of hydrogen: some 80,000 light years in diameter and billions of times the mass of the Sun. They move incredibly fast, between 43 and 56 miles per second. And they cover up to 5 percent of the sky.

Related: Scientists have found supermassive black holes in the galaxy: Scientists do not know where these clouds originated, but some say that they may be objects left by the structure of the galaxy, which move in or out of our galaxy Huh. From interactions with nearby large and small Magellanic clouds. Dr. Westmire has provided a map for anyone so that we can learn more about these incredible patterns.

One of the amazing fruits of summer is avocado. Nutrition and taste high, indicating the onset of some heat, like a cold with chosen guacamole dip tortilla chips. The next time you are making avocado for salad or cutting avocado, save your pits to grow on avocado trees. It is surprisingly easy to grow your own avocado tree from seed, and it makes for a great educational project for homes and classrooms. To learn how to grow an avocado tree from seed, see our Handy-Dandy Guide below.

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How to grow a tree from seed, how to grow avocado tree, how to grow an avocado tree, how to grow avocado tree from a pit, avocado pit, avocado pit. You should start to carefully remove the avocado (without cutting it), and then wash it with all the avocado fruits (usually it helps the body to soak in some water for a few minutes and then clean all the remaining fruits Does).

Plants talk, plants listen, here’s how: they don’t have eyes. Or ear or what we call the nervous system. But plants can talk. And they listen. Tell me how we have to eat the plant first. This is great: it’s aphid, a hungry bitterness that likes to eat on fresh, green leaves … Next, we arrange food. We raise a bunch of young, healthy bean plants with broad, green leaves. We then carefully drop our aphids (which make many aphids) into the bean plant, where they begin to chew on the ground. Aphids spread throughout the plant, cutting the leafy surface into green and small holes.

When a leaf plant is attacked, it does not sit quietly. . 19 19 33 Two scientists, Jack Shultes and Ian Baldwin, report that young maple doe boats discovered by insects emit a group of chemicals that float in the air. You and I don’t miss it, but these chemicals smell a bit like a neighbor’s plants can detect. It is like a small scream.

These chemicals come from injured parts of the plant and cause the alarm to sound. Probably don’t like the warning, “Look! Aphid attack!” But like a common crisis call, “Aphids! Aphids! Aphids!” Or, “Attack! Attack!” Chemicals that block plants through the air include organic molecules – alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and esters – volatile organic compounds, known as abbreviated VOCs.

Over the years, scientists have discovered that all types of trees and shrubs, such as sagebrush, barley, corn and yes, beam plants leave VOCs when they attack. It is a weeping plant. But is anyone listening? Clear as. Because we can see the reactions of our neighbors. In our case, when the problem signal reaches both peanuts in our aphid cover plant, they cry VOCs – on their own. As you can see, they seemed to be calling for help – my imaginary way of describing what happened.

Some bean plants also pump chemicals specifically designed to destroy aphids. They stink, especially harmful to attackers. But some beans do pot double duty. They attract – a perfume made for greed in various wind-blowing insects – in this case prostitutes. This wall is an aphid’s worst nightmare. Once they arrive, the evaluation changes. The food that was being eaten was now breakfast in the morning. Study after study, this chemical interaction helps neighbors. Damage is usually widespread in the first plant, but remains resistant compared to neighboring pests. Clearly, they sound the alarm and know what to do.

Does this mean that plants talk to each other? Did the plant intentionally send its warning in some way? Was it a tribute to Paul? Scientists do not know. The first plant could just give a message or message to its branch and was actually talking to itself (scientists have known it as “bizarre”). Maybe the neighbors “hear” the crying. So information was exchanged, but it was not true, deliberately back and forth.

Yet, as they see it, scientists talk about plants. “It’s amazing,” Ted Farms of Logan University told Quanta magazine. “I’m surprised.” Not only do plants use chemicals in the air, they point from the ground, to their roots. It takes some ultrasonic “clicks”. What feels like a quiet day on the eagle is really clicking, planting, stopping, moving.

And sometimes selecting rows of species. Scientists repeated animal attacks in one age group. In the American West, Prague antelids regularly capture sagebrush with their teeth and cut leaves as they eat. In the lab version, soon after the animal’s teeth come out, scientists send a chemical signal to the air plant sage plant and see it as a signal to a nearby organism, and then emit an odor that causes the animal It is made. It was harmful – killing the deer – saving himself, and yes, helping the father. What a complicated dance!

Charles Darwin had imagined a world – 100,000,000 years earlier to see and hear than the world’s busiest and busiest people. Our senses are weak. The world is passing Darwin knew about this. “Notice how the relationship of being infinitely fit for all biological beings is interconnected,” he wrote. I like that expression, “infinitely close-fitting.” It is suggesting that things are going well, and we are only hearing our first glimpse.

Astronomers give a map of supermassive black holes: As the physical spiral is directed toward the black hole, it emits hot and X-rays, which in turn produce resonance and resonance when interacting with nearby gas. Due to the extreme nature of black hole crossings and severe gravity, these regions of space have become very distorted and distorted. Now, a team of astronomers and astronomers have used the ESA XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory to track these light echoes and map around the black hole in the highly variable active galaxy SAS 222.1–808080000 is.

These images show the black hole atmosphere XMM mapped to atmospheric gas at the ESA Newton X-ray Observatory. As the material enters the black hole, this temperature increases, rotating as the printed disk shown here. At the center of the disk near the black hole, a field of very hot electrons, with a billion-degree temperature known as a corona, produces high-energy X-rays in space. According to Alston et al. This radiation resonates like XML-Newton to represent the character around the black hole. They raided the black hole at the center of the active galaxy IRAS 39-3-99, one of the most variable X-ray sources in the sky, with a large and accelerating instability at a brightness of a factor of 5000. In just a few hours, through this X-ray echo track, it is possible to detect the dynamic behavior of the crown itself by obtaining the X-ray emission of the head. The crown is shown here as a sphere that changes shape and floats into a bright, black hole. Researchers found that the black hole crown IRAS 2012222–3-80999999 changed incredibly fast in a few days.

IRAS 1,222224 —- 3809, also known as LEDA 88 8 888353535 and 25MASX J13251937-3824524, is about one billion light years away at the constellation center. The galaxy has a supermassive black hole of relatively small mass (about one million solar masses) at its center. It is one of the most variable X-ray sources in the sky, experiencing very large and instantaneous instability in the brightness of the factor in a few hours. Everyone knows how different their voices are when they speak in class compared to the cathedral. This is simply due to the geometry and room content, which behaves and bounces the sound differently. Lo, an astronomer at the University of Cambridge, Drs. William Elton.

Similarly, we can see how the geometry of the field near the black-hole and the position of matter emit X-ray radiation. The dynamics of impact gas is linked to the properties of black hole consumption, DRS. William and his colleagues were able to determine the mass and mode of a supermassive black hole in IRAS 1222-2222–380800 by observing the properties of the material. When the black hole collapses, the inductive material takes the form of a disk. There is a region of very hot electrons on this disk, which has a temperature of about one billion degrees, called a corona.

Although researchers expected to see resonant echoes using the geometry of the sphere, they also saw something unexpected: the crown itself changed incredibly quickly in just a few days. Dr. William said, “When the crown changes shape, the light resonates: if the roof of the cathedral rises and falls, it replaces the light and its sound passes,” Dr. William said.

By tracking the resonance of light, we are able to track this changed crown, and it is still fun: to get a better value for the mass and rotation of the black hole, we can determine whether the crown Is the size of. I did not change. We know that the mass of a black hole cannot be reduced, so any change in resonance must occur under the atmosphere.

Scientists made the longest observation of the fastest black hole made with XMM-Newton, which was deposited in 2 spacecraft at 3 and 9 in 1 million seconds in 23 days. This allowed the team to resonate extensively throughout the day, with strong and short-lived variability of the black hole.

His results appear in the journal Nature Astronomy.

Bots can click on their roots and talk to each other: via Photo Shutterstock: See what your family members say around you – they can hear you, and they’re probably talking about you Huh. The idea of ​​plants interacting with each other is based on sci-fi or fantasy, but new research from Western University suggests that it may actually happen. UWA Postdoctoral Research Fellow DRS. Monica Gagliano found that not only do our green friends respond to sounds, they can also communicate with each other through “click sounds”.

The University of Western Australia, Plant Communications, Plants Talk to Each Other, Drs. Monica Gagliano, Gagliano Boat, Botany, Ants, Plant Talk. The gardeners have long believed that the music they play affects their plant growth, but Drs. Gagliano’s research from Professor Daniel Robert of Bristol University (UK) and Stefano Manasco of Florence University (Italy) show that young plants react to roots and particular sounds.

“Everyone knows that plants react to light, and scientists also know that plants use volatile chemicals to communicate with each other, for example, when a threat – such as vegetarianism -” Dr. Gagaliono said. “I was working in my herb garden one day and probably thinking that plants are sensitive to sound – why not?” – So I decided as a scientist to explore it. “

Through a series of DRS experiments. Gugloin and his team found that the root of the young corn plant had zero clicks. They also found that when the roots were suspended in water, they “saw the source of any sound emitted in the region of 1 Hz.” Interestingly, it is within the frequency range that the roots reveal them.

The team’s research, published in the major international journal Trends in Plant Science, concluded that the discovery of plant communication requires intensive investigation because it leaves “serious gaps” (our current understanding of the sensitivity and communication complexity of these organisms) . “It” is the ability that some sensitivity to sound and vibration also play an important role in plant life. “So if you see your family members leaning towards you, they can enjoy the sound of your bouquet.

As RR Tolkien once wrote, “There was a hobby at the opening of the field. It was full of dust, dirt, soaked holes, insects, and odors, neither eating or sitting on dry, naked or sandy holes. It Is a hobby. And that means comfort. “Chickens living in the Hobbit Cope would certainly agree with these handwritten copies written with a wooden miracle! Each outbreak is made up of kidneys from a human family and 15-5-5 chickens. Not able to keep up – and you can customize it with colors, donors and their favorite interior.

Hobbit hole coupes are available in several different models, inspired by the rear trilogy rear. Each nest box is equipped with two windows and ventic floors for durable, durable and durable mounting on the ground. Optional features available to a truly dedicated puppy breeder include lift-out linoleum for easy cleaning, insulated flooring for cold weather, and various exterior paint options. Three different floor plans make your chickens jealous of a lion, with “the power of ants and dwarves” outside the cedar. Although one of these deals will require you to find some Dragon Gold, as they cost around $ 5. Start at billion

Dr. A new study by Jefferson of Aberdeen University found that plants actually interact with each other in soil. Studies show that when vegetables are infected for certain diseases, they activate the alert genes of other nearby plants to pass on the disease that goes in their favor. The key to this communication is the earthen pots that act as messengers.

New studies show that plants talk to each other through soil: dr. A new study by Jobs at Aberdeen University found that talking to plants in soil. Studies show that vegetables are infected for certain diseases, they alert active genes to their nearest plant to prevent the disease. The key to this communication is the earthen pots that act as messengers.

News, Environment, Botany, University of Aberdeen, plants talk to each other, symbiotic relationships, Fiji hyphens, plants from Shutterstock to soil, science, nature, image

According to the research team, soil mist and some plants have a symbiotic relationship, sharing their findings with The Economist. Plant fungi feed and supply minerals. But it now replaces the phalangial hype, which forms a soil network that connects various plants, playing another essential role as messengers.

Related: Bright Bioluminescent Plants for Natural Paths – In ET, a team of Chinese investigators found that tomato plants had infected the leaves, so it was able to alert nearby tomato plants that have lost their immunity Built the system. Dr. David Johnson and his team tried to find out which plants are capable of communicating this information with elaborate seed plants.

To prove that the plants were communicating in the soil, the team created a “mesocosm” series of five bean plants. Ephesians are often attacked in Simi. When this happens, they release a chemical that repeatedly attracts ammo and destroys the aphids.

Related: Houseplants Feng Shui Your Home: At the time of use, all plants were covered with sacks that carried carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water in and out, but for larger molecules that could be used for lighter molecules. The release was prevented. Four days after this, the ON meter lattice was mounted in each mesocosm – to remove any hyphens, and left in the central plant aphids. “

You can read more about the experiment in The Economist, but control has shown that bean plants actually interact with each other in the soil when it is discovered that one of them was attacked by aphids.

The three hunters considered the hunters online and the tribal Mizmak people of Nova Scotia as sacred. Little was known about the spiritual significance of these three unknown predator animals when they were killed in the Cape Breton Highlands of Nova Scotia, Canada. It is because of the response in the photo (which has been removed) that Phillips realizes the seriousness of his mistake.

Micamac, Onamaki Natural Resources Institute, Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Highlands, Canada, Sacred Animals, Spirit Animals, White Moss, Albino Moose, Hunter, Trophy Head, Taxidermy,

Micham people consider all white animals to be “spirit” animals and have known about the bush for years, but its importance in the community prevents it from harming it. Clifford Paul, the Moose Management Coordinator for the Institute of Natural Resources, highlighted what it means for animal husbandry when talking to the CBC.

“We know its importance and we’ve been teaching it to non-native populations for years – it’s about the importance of playing this and other white animals in our lives,” he said. “We should not harm them in any way, shape or form, because they may be one of our ancestors who come to remind us what is important in our community.”

Jim Hanateaux, who hunted and operated a tax-paid shop in Lantz, told the hunter about his crime after being brought to his body shop. He also expressed regret on behalf of the hunters: “These are good people and they have not broken any laws and they have said that it is good to know more about the importance of these white moose. Through a lot of information and by doing so. Provide a catalyst for

According to an AFP report, locals also vowed to kill the white animals that hunted the hunters in Manama and allowed them to perform four days of ceremonies to honor the animals. While this may be enough to ease one’s temper, it is not detailed why the hunter held the sacred pose in the form of a trophy.

Scientists found that if the crop was grown, a simple genetic modification produced about 5% less water than plant water. An international team led by scientists at the University of Illinois discovered a particular protein, called Photosystem II subunit S (PSBS), that can be partially stimulated to close the intestines, causing plants and their There may be small holes in the atmosphere.

Scientists estimate that plants can take additional water without the need for carbon dioxide – atmospheric concentrations, which have risen by about 25 percent in less than a century. “Development is not accelerating the pace of rapid change, so scientists helped,” said Stephen La Long, co-author of this study and director of the International Research Project’s Release Growth Photosynthetic Capacity (RIPE). . University of Illinois, University of Illinois, scientist, scientist, botanist


The world is aware of climate change, low water harvesting crops can be a game changer. “It’s a huge success,” LL explained. “Crop production has steadily improved over the years, but the amount of water required to produce one ton of grain is unchanged – many believe this factor cannot change. For this, further research And development must be opened, so that this important goal for the future can be achieved. Prove that theory works in practice.

Related: How Faggie Maintains Earth’s Environment – New Study: About 5 percent of the world’s fresh water supply is used for agricultural work. As populations grow and resources become stressful, more efficient plants can be a simple yet effective tool for caring for healthy communities. The research team published its positive results on the revision of the circular plant; His next step is to do the same for the grain crop. “Making the crop more water usable is the biggest challenge for current and future plant scientists,” the study’s co-author, Johannes Chromidic, said in a release. “Our results allow the expression of PSBS to make crops more conservative with water use, which we think will distribute the available water resources during the growing season and help make the crop more productive in the dry season. “

The new spherical pool in Uruguay represents the “skins inside Rafael” according to Rafael Violet. The bridge, which extends the Laguna Patron between the cities of Rocha and Maldonado on the southern coast of Uruguay, replaces the traditional flat crossing. The circular structure encourages traffic to slow down and provides a look at their crosses for drivers and pedestrians.

Violet, an architect from Uruguay based in New York, says, “The concept of Puente Laguna Garzón is to transform the traditional ride mode into an event that reduces car speed, allowing stunning landscapes and panoramic views at the same time Mountaineering Center. Bhanoli Architect, Infrastructure, Engineering. Environmental Development, Uruguay Tourism Issue.

After entering the circular section of the bridge, two-lane traffic splitting and logging per day, the car is expected to be carried. Pedestrians are located on either side of the traffic lane, which encourages tourists to use the bridge for recreation. The bridge project was constructed by Eduardo Constantini, who is responsible for the roadside tourist development of the bridge.

Architecture, Circular Pool, Uruguay, Rafael Vinoli Architects, Infrastructure, Engineering, Environmental Development, Uruguay Tourism. “It is the iconic architectural piece that will be the catalyst for Rocha’s coastal development, especially for the preservation of direct contact with nature. Between the two plantations and a few percent of the green, only the middle ground can be developed.” “Must be devoted to these areas,” Costantini said.

Despite these national defenses, local and environmental groups have faced opposition to the construction work, La National said.

Related: Researchers Think Trees May Have Their Own Internet: Although scientists recently released their research in the Journal of Plant Physiology, scientists say there was no view of this plant. Instead, researchers showed how plant genes express themselves differently in water. When they were sprayed and lasted only half an hour, the genes changed. Scientists determined that there were no ‘active compounds’ that could trigger change; Plants demonstrate that their external environment changes in response.

Just pouring water brought into the plant for gene changes, but when people touched them with their fingers and screams, the shadow fell on them. Principal investigator Olivier Van Aiken said that this can happen when rain is scattered or scattered at the bug plant.

Olivier Van Aken – Van Aken, University of Western Australia, Botany, Botany, Botany, Botany, Research, Science, although people generally believe that plants should not be touched, they state that they actually Are very sensitive to this gene. . Redirecting the metabolism of expression, defense and possibly its cause. Why can plants answer this? They appear to protect themselves or even exacerbate environmental conditions such as rising water or light.

Van Ekin said, “Unlike animals, plants are unable to survive in harmful conditions. Instead, plants feel they have a complex way of understanding their environment and helping them to detect and react properly.” Is. Stress protection systems have evolved. It shows that we have interactions with plants. When plants complain, if I don’t bloom. I chim Mr. plays me, so I give that I brush them show them that I am, or by which they are fully informed about the contact and very fast. The answer to our treatment. “

At the top of the Milky Way, there are mysterious clouds that zoom at high speed, and we’ve finally unlocked a key that helps us understand these things. Using telescopes, scientists have created a detailed map of clouds, revealing clamps, branches, and filaments that have never been seen before. Dr. Tobias Westmeier, University of Western Australia, Radio Astronomy Research, Hydrogen Cloud, Space, Space Exploration, Space Exploration, Science, Scientific Discovery, Discovery with Space, Hydrogen Cloud Map, Cloud Map, Space Cloud Map, Milan Way, Milky Way Map

An astronomer at the Radio Astronomy Research Node of the University of Western Australia. Tobias Westermeyer created a map that helps us understand those space events. It showed large clouds of hydrogen: about 100,000 light years in diameter and the mass of the Sun billions of times. They move incredibly fast, between 43 and 56 miles per second. And they cover up to a percentage of the sky.

Related: Scientists Found Supermassive Black Holes in the Galaxy: Scientists do not know where these clouds originated, but some say they may be objects left by the galaxy’s structure that go into or out of our galaxy . By interacting with large and small Magellanic clouds nearby. Dr. Westermeyer has provided a map for anyone so that we can learn more about these incredible patterns.

One amazing summer fruit is avocado. Nutritious and high-tasting, hinting for some heat, such as a cold with guacamole dip tortilla chips. The next time you’re making avocado for salad or cutting avocado, save your pits to grow on avocado trees. It is surprisingly easy to grow your own avocado tree from seed, and it makes for a great educational project for the home and classroom. To learn how to grow an avocado tree from seed, see our Handy-Dandy Guide below.

How to grow seeds from seed, how to grow avocado trees, how to grow avocado trees, how to grow an avocado tree from a pit, avocado pit, avocado pit. You should begin to remove the avocado carefully (without cutting it), and then wash it with all avocado fruits (usually by soaking the body in some water for a few minutes and cleansing all the remaining fruits).

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