Pair of galaxies forming a dusty star 13 billion light years away: Using an Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international team of astronomers has observed an unpublished and dusty galaxy system in the early universe. The system consists of a pair of galaxies separated by approximately 20,000 light years.
The dusty star-forming galaxies are the most intense star nurseries in the universe. They contain large amounts of gas and dust and form stars at a speed of up to a few thousand solar masses per year.
Such monstrous galaxies are not expected to form early in the history of the universe, but astronomers have already discovered many of them, when the universe was less than a billion years old.
Because of their extreme behavior, astronomers find that these dusty galaxies play an important role in the evolution of the universe.
“These galaxies hide in direct view. We know they are out there, but they are not easy because their starlight is hidden in dust clouds, “said Dr. Katlin Casey, an astronomer at the University of Texas at Austin.
MAMBO-9 was first detected 10 years ago by the Max-Planck Millimeter Meter (MAMBO) on the 30-meter IRAM telescope in Spain and the Plateau de Bure interferometer in France. But those comments were not sensitive enough to reveal the distance.
“If it were real, we were skeptical, because we couldn’t find it with other telescopes. But if it were real, it should have been far away,” said Dr. Manuel Arevena, of the Diego Portals University in Chile. A researcher of.
Due to the sensitivity of ALMA, the team can now determine the distance to MAMBO-9.
“We prepared the galaxy in a new ALMA survey to specifically identify the dusty galaxies that form stars in the early Universe. And the amazing thing about this observation is that it is the furthest it has ever been. There is a dusty galaxy, which we have seen without obstacles.
The scientists saw the MAMBO-9 directly without a gravitational lens, and this allowed them to measure its mass.
“The total mass of gas and dust in the galaxy is very large: 10 times larger than all the stars in the Milky Way. That means that most of its stars have not yet formed,” said Dr. Casey.
Astronomers expect more dusty galaxies to be found in the ALMA study, which will reveal how common they are, how these massive galaxies formed so early in the universe and why they are so dusty.
The discovery of MAMBO-9 is described in an article in the Astrophysical Journal.
The Inoy Solar Telescope sees the most detailed image of the Sun’s surface: Daniel K. of the National Science Foundation. The high-resolution images of the Inoue Solar Telescope, at the summit of Hecklela, Hawaii, show a closer view of the Sun’s surface, which can provide important details for astronomers and solar physicists.
The images show a ‘boiling’ turbulent plasma pattern that covers the entire sun. Cell-shaped structures are signatures of violent movements that transport heat from inside our star to its surface. This hot solar plasma rises in the bright centers of the cells, cools and then sinks beneath the surface in dark alleys in a process known as convection.
This image of the Sun’s surface was captured by the NSF Inouye Solar Telescope. The image, taken at 789 nm, shows small features such as 30 km (18 miles).
NSF Director, Drs. France Kordova said: “The NSF Inoye solar telescope will be able to map magnetic fields inside the Sun’s corona, where solar explosions occur that can affect life on Earth.”
“This telescope will improve our understanding of space weather and, ultimately, will help forecasters better predict solar storms.” “It’s an exciting time to be a solar physicist,” said Dr. Valentin Puppies, director of the National Solar Observatory of NSF, said.
“The Inoy solar telescope will provide remote detection of the outer layers of the Sun and the magnetic processes that occur in them. These processes propagate in the solar system where Parker’s solar probes and solar orbiter missions will measure their results. “
Program Director of the NSF Division of Astronomical Sciences, Dr. “In general, they actually constitute a multiple messenger to understand how stars and their planets are magnetically connected,” said David Bobolt.
“For the next six months, the team of scientists, engineers and technicians of the Inoye Telescope will continue testing and commissioning the telescope to prepare it for use by the international solar scientific community.”
“The Inuy Solar Telescope will gather more information about our Sun during the first 5 years of its life than Galileo first pointed to a telescope on the Sun in 1612.”
On December 15, 2013, the telescope was previously known as the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, in honor of Hawaii’s late Senator, Daniel K. The Inoy Solar Telescope was renamed. Senator Inouye was a tireless advocate of science, technology, engineering and mathematics, especially when it came to enriching the lives of the people of Hawaii.
Built by the National Solar Observatory of the NSF and administered by the University of the Astronomy Association (AURA), the telescope combines a mirror of 13 feet (4 m), the world’s largest for solar telescopes, unique near the top from Halikala. With visibility. The largest volcano on Maui, to create conditions for unprecedented observation of the surface of the Sun.
Concentrating on 13 kW of solar energy generates large amounts of heat, heat that must be contained or eliminated. A special cooling system provides significant thermal protection for the telescope and its optics. More than seven miles of pipe distributes refrigerant throughout the observatory, partially cooled by ice at the site overnight.
The dome that encloses the telescope is covered by thin cooling plates that stabilize the temperature around the telescope, aided by the blinds inside the dome that provide shade and air circulation.
Allowing the heat stop to block most of the sunlight energy from the main mirror, allowing scientists to study specific areas of the sun with uniqueness. The telescope also uses state-of-the-art adaptive optics to compensate for the blur created by Earth’s atmosphere.
The optics design reduces bright and scattered light for better viewing and is complemented by cutting-edge systems to focus telescopes and eliminate distortions created by Earth’s atmosphere.
A team of scientists from the Peter Doherty Institute for Infections and Immunity (Doherty Institute) in Melbourne, Australia, has successfully cultivated the new 2019-nCoV coronovirus from a sample of a patient.
Coronavirus 2019-nCoV in cell culture. Video by Julian Druce, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory of the Royal Melbourne Hospital, Doherty Institute.
Coronavirus 2019-nCoV was cultured from a sample of a patient who arrived at the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory of the Royal Melbourne Hospital at the Doherty Institute on January 24, 2020.
A researcher at the Royal Melbourne Hospital and head of the Virus Identification Laboratory of the Doherty Institute, Drs. Julian Druce said: “This was a critical breakthrough because it would allow the diagnosis and overall prognosis of the 2019-NCOV virus.” University of Melbourne and Royal Melbourne Hospital.
“The Chinese authorities launch the genome sequence of this new coronavirus, which is useful for diagnosis, however, being a real virus means that we now have the ability to validate and validate all test methods and their sensitivity AND compare the details : this will be the game change for diagnosis. “
“The virus will be used as a positive control material for the Australian network of public health laboratories, and will also be sent to specialized laboratories in Europe that work closely with the World Health Organization.”
Dr. Doherty Institute deputy director and director of the Victoria Infectious Disorders Reference Laboratory at Royal Melbourne Hospital, Drs. Mike Caton said: “Isolate what can be achieved with molecular technology in the fight against this virus.” .
The coronavirus Lab-Gro 2019-NCOV is used to generate an antibody test, which will allow the detection of the virus in patients who do not have symptoms and, therefore, did not know they had the virus.
“An antibody test will allow us to retrospectively evaluate suspicious patients so that we can obtain a more accurate picture of the virus and, consequently, among other things, the actual mortality. It will also help evaluate the effectiveness of test vaccines, “Dr. Katon said.
Casualties: 132 people killed, all in mainland China; There are 5,974 confirmed cases across the country and more than 70 confirmed cases outside of China, including the USA. USA, Australia, France and Germany.
Rapid spread: the virus seems to spread rapidly: there was a 30% jump in cases reported in just one day in mainland China.
Person-to-person infection: both Germany and Japan have confirmed cases of patients who tested positive for coronovirus, but who did not visit Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.
Response of China: around 60 million people are under a travel ban in Hubei province; The capital of the province, Wuhan, is subject to an almost complete blockade, with no entry or exit movement; In many cities, businesses and schools have been closed for the next few weeks.
Hospitals subject to stress: hospital staff in Hubei province are struggling to cope with the number of patients, and supplies are running out; China has deployed 1,800 more doctors in the province to help.
Global response: Many countries have inspected the airport and have warned their citizens not to travel to China; Some countries, such as Indonesia and the Philippines, have banned Chinese tourists; Others have begun planning the evacuation of their citizens from Wuhan; Hong Kong is no longer issuing personal travel permits for travelers from mainland China.
Scientists at the University of Washington, St. Louis, Caltech and the University of Chicago have found small grains of solid interstellar material formed before the birth of the Sun in Curious Mary, a sample of the famous Allende meteorite.
Curious Marie Allende is a meteorite specimen, which fell in northern Mexico in February 1969. The white and blurry features in this piece are inclusions rich in aluminum and calcium, some of the first solids that condensed in the system solar.
The Curious Mary is a notable example of inclusions, or part within a meteorite, known as calcium-aluminum-enriched (CAI) inclusions. These objects, some of the first to condense in the solar nebula, help cosmochemists define the age of the solar system.
“The surprising thing is that the presenting grains are present. After our current understanding of the construction of the solar system, preservative grains could not survive in the environment where these findings are made, “said Dr. Said Olga Pradivtseva, a researcher in the department of physics and McDonnell Center for Space Sciences at the University from Washington, St. Louis.
In 2016, a research team from the University of Chicago discovered evidence in Curious Mary that a rare element called curium was present during the construction of the solar system.
This piece of meteorite and curio by Allende is named after Nobel Prize-winning physics and chemistry Marie Curie, whose pioneering work laid the foundations for the theory of radioactivity.
In the new study, Drs. Pravdivtseva and his colleagues used the isotopic signature of noble gases to show that the silicon carbide presenting grains are present in the Curious Mary.
This is important because anchor grains are generally considered too fragile to eliminate the high temperature conditions present at the time of the birth of our sun.
“The fact that silicon carbide is present in refractory inclusions tells us first about the environment in the solar nebula in the condensation of solids,” said Dr. Pravdivtseva said.
“The fact that silicon carbide has not been completely destroyed in Curious Mary can help us understand this environment a little better.”
“Many refractory inclusions melt and all the textual evidence of their summary is lost. But not all “.
The scientists had 20 mg of Mary curious to work, which is a relatively large sample from the point of view of cosmochemistry.
They increased it continuously, increasing the temperature and measuring the composition of four different noble gases released in each of the 17 temperature phases.
“Experimentally, it’s a beautiful job. And then we had a puzzle of great untouchable gas isotopes. For me, it’s like solving a mystery.
Other scientists have previously searched for evidence of silicon carbide in such CAI in meteorites that use meteorites, but Drs. Pradivtseva’s team was the first to find him.
“It was beautiful when all noble gases pointed to the same source of anomalies: silicon carbide,” said Dr. Pradvitseva said.
“Not only do we see silicon carbide in fine CAI, we also see small populations of grains that occur in different conditions.”
“This discovery forces us to modify the way we see conditions in the early solar nebula.”
The results were published in the journal Nature Astronomy.
By January 25, 2020, up to 75,800 people in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, the epicenter of the 2019-NCOV coronavirus outbreak, may be infected with the new virus, according to new research from the University of Hong Kong. Hong Kong
“Not all people infected with 2019-nCoV will need to seek or seek medical attention,” said study co-author Professor Gabriel Leung of the University of Hong Kong.
“During the urgent demands of a rapidly expanding epidemic of a completely new virus, especially when the capacity of the system is overflowing, some of those infected can be seen in the official record.”
“The apparent discrepancy between our projected estimates of the 2019-nCoV infection and the actual number of confirmed cases in Wuhan may also be due to several other factors. This includes that there is a time interval between infection and the onset of symptoms, delays in the entry of infected people to therapy and the time needed to confirm cases through laboratory tests, which may affect the general record and Reporting . “
New estimates also suggest that several major cities in China may have imported dozens of cases of Wuhan NCOV 2019 infection in sufficient quantities to start a local epidemic.
Initial estimates underline that it will take rapid and immediate measures of adequate public health control measures to prevent major epidemics in areas outside of Wuhan.
A more detailed analysis suggests that if the transmission capacity of 2019-nCoV can be reduced, both the growth rate and the size of local epidemics in all cities in China can be reduced.
“If the transmission capacity of 2019-nCoV is the same nationwide and over time, it is possible that the epidemic is already increasing in many major cities in China, one or two weeks after the Wuhan outbreak,” said the University From Hong Kong. Said Professor Joseph Wu, corresponding author of the study.
“Large cities abroad with transport links close to China could also cause outbreaks due to the substantial proliferation of prior signaling cases, unless adequate public health interventions are implemented immediately at both the population and individual levels.
“Based on our projections, we will urge authorities around the world to prepare for rapid deployment, including trial deployment, preparation of drug supplies, personal protective equipment, hospital supplies and especially human resources, especially in cities Mitigation interventions should be read.There are close links with Wuhan and other major cities in China.
In the study, Professor Lung, Professor Wu and colleagues officially used mathematical models to estimate the size of the epidemic based on the 2019-nCoV case data and national and international travel data. The researchers assumed that the estimate of serial delay, the time it takes for infected people to infect others, by 2019, was similar for SARC nCoV.
They modeled the possible future spread of 2019-nCoV in China and internationally, explaining the potential impact of several public health interventions implemented in January 2020, including the use of facial masks and increased personal hygiene, and includes quarantine measures launched in Wuhan in January 2. 3).
They estimate that in the early stages of the Wuhan outbreak (from December 1, 2019 to January 25, 2020) each person can infect an average of 2-3 people infected with 2019-nCoV, and the epidemic has doubled. . Every 6.4 days. During this period, 75,815 people were able to become infected in Wuhan.
In addition, estimates suggest that the 2019-nCoV infection cases may extend from Wuhan to several other major cities in China, including Guangzhou (111 cases), Beijing (113), Shanghai (98) and Shenzhen (80) before 25 January. These cities together account for more than half of all international air travel from China.
Although estimates suggest that the quarantine in Wuhan may not be the expected effect of completely stopping the epidemic, additional analysis suggests that if the 2019-nCoV transmission capacity increases in all cities with expanded control efforts nationwide, 25 It can be reduced to%, so both the growth rate and the size of local epidemics can be greatly reduced.
In addition, a 50% decrease in transmission is rapidly expanding the current 2019-nCoV epidemic, which is gradually increasing.
Using a novel method to track the Neanderthal lineage in modern humans, a team of American researchers has shown that the remains of the Neanderthal genome are alive in every modern human population studied to date. They have discovered that modern African individuals have more Neanderthal DNA than before; This can be explained by the royal Neanderthal ancestry originally caused by the migration of ancestral Europeans to Africa.
The detection of archaic introversion in modern humans without using a reference panel reveals Neanderthal ancestry in previously observed African individuals and suggests that migrants from Africa have contributed to this signal.
The detection of archaic introversion in modern humans without using a reference panel reveals Neanderthal ancestry in previously observed African individuals and suggests that migrants from Africa have contributed to this signal. Sincerely: Neanderthal Museum.
Princeton University Scientific Senior Writer Drs. Joshua Aki said: “Our study is important because it provides important new ideas about human history and patterns of Neanderthal descent.”
“Our results refine the catalog of genomic regions where the Neanderthal sequence was efficient and advantageous and show that the remains of the Neanderthal genome survive in all modern human populations studied to date.”
Dr. from Princeton University, University of Washington, Seattle and Microsoft. AK and his colleagues developed a new computational method to detect Neanderthal lineages in the human genome. Called IBDmix, its method allowed it to search Neanderthal ancestors in African and non-African populations for the first time.
“This is the first time we can detect the true sign of Neanderthal ancestry among Africans. And surprisingly, it showed a higher level than we previously thought, “Dr. Associate of Postdoctoral Research at the Lewis-Siegler Institute of Integrative Genomics at Princeton University. Lu Chen said.
The IBDmix method takes its name from the genetic theory ‘identification by offspring’ (IBD), in which two individuals share the same DNA fragment because those individuals once shared a common ancestor. The length of the IBD segment depends on how long those individuals shared a common ancestor.
For example, siblings share long segments of IBD because their shared ancestors (parents) are eliminated only one generation. Alternatively, the fourth cousins share shorter IBD clauses since their shared ancestor (a third great grandfather) is eliminated several generations.
The researchers applied IBDmix to 2,504 modern individuals of the Genome Project 1,000, which represents a geographically diverse population, and used the Altai Neanderthal reference to identify the Neanderthal sequence in these individuals.
They first identified regions of Neanderthal lineage on average in Africans, identifying an average of 17 Mega databases (MB) per person Neanderthal sequence (corresponding to approximately 0.3% of the genome), not less than one megabase. It is. Reported in previous studies.
More than 94% of the Neanderthal sequence identified in African samples was shared with non-Africans. The scientists also observed levels of Neanderthal ancestry in Europe (51 MB / person), East Asia (55 MB / person) and South Asia (55 MB / person) that were strikingly similar to each other.
In a hurry, contrary to previous reports of 20% of East Asians, only 8% had more Neanderthal ancestry than Europeans.
“This suggests that most people of current Neanderthal descent who have a common hybridization event today, which may include ancestral populations for all non-Africans, occur immediately after the spread outside of Africa,” Dr. Akisaid
To explore a possible explanation for the unexpectedly high Neanderthal ancestry in Africans, the researchers compared the actual data to replicate the genotype data generated from different demographic models. They discovered that Africans specifically share 7.2% of the Neanderthal sequence with Europeans, compared to only 2% with East Asians.
Simulations have shown that the low levels of backward migration released in the last 20,000 years can replicate the characteristics of the data and, therefore, may be a possible explanation of the observed levels of ancestors among different modern populations. Neanderthals entered southern Siberia on two separate occasions, according to the study.
Neanderthals sometimes spread throughout Europe and western Asia. They also entered the Altai mountains in southern Siberia, but the geographical origin of these populations and the timing of their propagation remains difficult. Archaeologists who excavated the Chagyrskaya cave in the foothills of Altai have found 90,000 stone artifacts, numerous bone tools, 74 Neanderthal fossils and animals and plants in deposits ranging from 59,000 to 49,000 years.
The Chagyrskaya Neanderthals created distinctive stone tools, which have an important resemblance to the Eastern European Neanderthal artifacts, while other Altai sites occupied by earlier Neanderthal populations lack such artifacts. This suggests at least two dispersions of Neanderthals in southern Siberia, along with the ancestral homeland of the Chagraskaya tool manufacturers located between 3,000 and 4,000 km (1,900-2,500 miles) to the west.
Researcher at the Institute of Archeology and Ethnography of Novosibirsk, Siberia, Drs. “The most surprising discovery was that the Charyskoye stone tools were similar to the microkia tools of the archeological sites in Central and Eastern Europe,” said Kseniya Kolobova.
Dres from Australia, Ukraine, Poland, Germany and Canada. Kolobova and his colleagues compared the typical stone tools found in the Cheragraskaya Cave recovered from microchine sites in Europe and Central Asia, using a variety of statistical tests. He identified the area between Crimea and the North Caucasus as the ancestral homeland of Cerrskaya tool manufacturers.
Stone artifacts from the Chagyrskaya cave: (A-C) Photographs, line drawings and cross-sectional profiles of three diagnoses of flat-convex binomial instruments of the Micochian type. Scale bar – 5 cm. Professor Richard ‘Burt’ Roberts, a geosynchronous scientist in the center, said: “This part of Eastern Europe is between 3,000 and 4,000 km from the Chyraskaya cave, which is equivalent to running from Sydney to Perth or from New York to The Angels”. For Archaeological Sciences at Wollongong University.
Animal and plant analyzes were extracted from the Chygraskaya cave reserves, which showed that Neanderthals were capable of hunting bison and horses in cold, dry and tasteless environments, while microscopic studies of sediments caused these living conditions. You will find additional clues that you had to endure.
“The Neanderthals adapted favorably to life in the landscapes of Steppi and Tundra-Steppe, and were able to reach the Altai Mountains from eastern Europe around the Caspian Sea and then eastward along the Steppie belt,” said Dr. said McKees Krajarz, a geoscientist. Institute of Geological Sciences of the Academy of Sciences of Poland.
The new archaeological evidence indicates at least two different migrations of Neanderthals in southern Siberia, and is independently supported by complete genome studies of ancient DNA derived from Neanderthal fossils.
The first migration took place over 100,000 years ago, a walkway to the adjacent site of Denisova Cave, famous as the home of the esoteric Denisovans, a sister group of the Neanderthals, who occupied the cave several times. I also did it.
A more recent migration event, which originated in Eastern Europe about 60,000 years ago, led to the arrival of Neanderthals to the Chezysrakaya cave, equipped with their distinctive microkine toolkit.
DNA studies confirm a link between Neanderthals who lived in Europe 100,000 years ago and the Chengreskaya cave.
Despite the geographical proximity of the Chagyrskaya and Denisova caves, the Chaanrskaya Neanderthal genome is similar to that of the European Neanderthals, 110,000 years older than the Denisova cave.
Dr. Kolobova said: “By combining these new ideas of archeology and genetics, we can unite the intriguing history of the more Eastern Neanderthals and the events that have shaped the history of our former human relatives.”
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