- Artistic representation of the exoplanet Kepler-1625B with its planned moon, which is believed to be the size of Neptune.
- A new study suggests that the first serious exomoon candidate is probably the occupying nucleus of a giant baby planet.
- In October 2018, astronomers Alex Tecchi and David Kipping of Columbia University announced that they would testify about the world in the form of Neptune, the Kepler-1625b, a massive alien planet about 8,000 light years from Earth.
- This was great news: if confirmed, the new world, known as Kepler-1625B-I, would be the first moon discovered beyond our solar system. But confirmation has proved difficult.
Techey and Kipping insisted at the time that the detection, using observations from NASA’s Kepler and the Hubble Space Telescope, was temporary.
Another research team has argued against the existence of Kepler-1625B-I, and another has insisted that the data is inconclusive at this time. Therefore, a year later, Kepler-1625B-I remains a candidate instead of a world candidate.
However, this situation did not prevent other scientists from trying to understand how the potential exomoon arose. In fact, a new study addressed that question and got an intriguing answer.
Astronomers find that the Kepler-1625B-I is approximately 10 times more massive than Earth. The object appears to be orbiting its parent planet as Jupiter at an average distance of 1.9 million miles (3 million kilometers).
Mani L. of UCLA At the Bhowmick Institute of Theoretical Physics, Bradley Henson. The Kepler-1625B-I seen on the planetary satellites of the solar system is probably “the planetary satellites of the solar system have a much greater mass and angular momentum.
It is not clear why Kepler-1625B-I is formed in the same way as the moons of the Solar System. The great moons of Jupiter, for example, are probably covered with a disk of material that orbits the newborn planet a long time ago.
- Modeling work suggests that the Kepler-1625B-I is much larger in this way, Hansen said.
- It is possible that the Exomoon candidate is an ancient planet that was gravitationally occupied by Kepler-1625b.
- Which is twice as massive as Jupiter.
- But it doesn’t work either; “All the landscapes that assemble.
- Capture Kepler-1625B-I after the host planet is formed suffer the problem that they produce a moon that is too small or too close,” Hanson Es wrote.
- Instead, his new modeling job suggests that both bodies were captured shortly after birth.
- It is likely that two ascending objects occupy the same orbital neighborhood: a portion of space around an astronomical unit (AU) of the host star.
- (An AU is the average Earth-Sun distance, approximately 93 million miles or 150 million km).
- In this scenario, the planetary nucleus that becomes Kepler-1625B produces more gas than its neighbor, strengthening its dominance in the eternal relationship.
The way gas accumulation works is a very strong function of the mass, Hansen told Space.com. If you move a little, you start moving very fast, so it is essentially a winning situation,” he said.
One of them captured all the gases in the surrounding area and became a gas giant. The one that crawled a little got stuck in this main phase and due to the increased gravity [of its neighbor’s satellite].
Even in this stable state, the Kepler-1625B-I is likely to have so much gas that it is not a good terrestrial-planetary analog, Hansen said. Therefore, even if the potential Exomoon resides in the habitable zone of its host star.
The range of distances where liquid water may exist on the surface of the world, the Kepler-1625B-I is probably not a great candidate for life as the earth.
A common occurrence?
- Elements of this landscape may have played in our own neck of the cosmic forest, Hansen said.
- For example, it is possible that Neptune and Uranus are giant gaseous protocores that originated in the kingdom of Jupiter and Saturn.
- In these two later worlds the head of engulfing gas begins, the idea continues.
- Iinstead of gravity, occupies Neptune and Uranus, tilting them both to their current location.
- In fact, this process can help explain the abundance of the mass world of Neptune in the Milky Way galaxy.
- Which appears to be higher than expected by traditional planetary formation models.
- “If we begin to take into account the fact that multiple nuclei can interact in the same places, it is possible that not everyone becomes a giant planet,” he said.
- This may be this race against time.
The search for a possible Exmoon raises the hopes of a real-life Pandora or Andor In search of mini moons: Exmoon could have its own satellite.
More ways to search for alien planets
Mike Wall’s book, “Out There” (Grand Central Publishing, 2018; illustrated by Carl Tait) on the discovery of foreign life, is now available.
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A new study analyzed why large and Neptune-sized exoplanets are rare
A new study analyzed why large and Neptune-sized exoplanets are rare: Sub-Neptunes- extrasolar planets with Ready between 2.7 and 3 times Earth – are much larger than planets the size of Neptune and larger.
- A new study proposes that this fall is so sudden because the Sub-Neptune atmosphere merges easily with the magma oceans on its surface.
- When the planets reach approximately 3 times the size of the Earth.
- This is a clear advantage in the data, and it is quite dramatic.
- We are surprised that the planets want to stop growing almost 3 times the size of the Earth, “said Dr. John, a planet scientist at the University of Chicago. Edwin Kight said.
- It is believed that Sub-Neptune has oceans of magma on its surfaces, which remain warm thanks to a thick layer of hydrogen-rich atmosphere.
- Dr. “So far, almost all models have ignored this magma, but it is considered chemically inert, but liquid rock flows almost like water and is very reactive,” Kight said.
- Dr. Kight and his colleagues considered the question of whether the ocean could begin to dissolve the atmosphere, because the planets receive more hydrogen.
- In this scenario, when a sub-Neptune occupies more gas, it accumulates in the atmosphere.
- And the downward pressure begins to form where magma meets the atmosphere.
- First, magma raises excess gas at a constant rate, but as pressure increases, hydrogen begins to dissolve in magma much more easily.
- Not only that, but a little of the additional gas remaining in the atmosphere increases the atmospheric pressure and, therefore.
- A large fraction of the gas that arrives later will dissolve in magma,” said Dr. Cometa explained.
- Thus, the growth of the planet stops before it reaches the size of Neptune.
- The authors of the study call it the “fugitive crisis”, after the word that measures the ease with which a gas dissolves in a mixture as a function of pressure.
- “The theory fits well with existing observations,” Dr. Comet mentioned.
- “There are also many markers that astronomers can see in the future.”
- “For example, if the theory is correct, then planets with oceans of magma that are cold enough to crystallize on the surface must show different profiles, because it will prevent the ocean from absorbing so much hydrogen.”
Awaiting confirmation from another 4900. Studies of these many planets have revealed things about the range of possible planets in our universe and have taught us that there are many for which there are no analogues in our solar system.
- For example, thanks to the new data obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope.
- Astronomers have learned more about a new class of exoplanets known as “overpopulated” planets.
- The planets of this class are basically young gas giants that are comparable in size to Jupiter but have masses that are only slightly taller than those on Earth.
- This causes the density of cotton candy in its atmosphere, hence its cheerful nickname.
- The only known examples of this planet live in the Kepler 51 system, a young Sun-like star located about 2,615 light years away in the Cygnus planetarium.
- Within this system, three exoplanets have been confirmed (Kepler-51B, C and D) that were first detected by the Kepler space telescope in 2012. However.
- It was not until 2014 that the density of these planets was confirmed, and This was a big surprise.
- Three giant planets that orbit the star Kepler 51 similar to the Sun compared to some planets in our solar system.
- While these gas giants have atmospheres that are formed by hydrogen and helium and are the same size as Jupiter, they are also a hundred times lighter in terms of mass.
- How and why their atmospheres would skyrocket remains a mystery, but the fact that the nature of their atmosphere makes the Super Puff planets a leading candidate for atmospheric analysis.
- This is exactly what an international team of astronomers, led by Jessica Libby-Roberts of the Center for Astrophysics.
- And Space Astronomy (CASA) of the University of Colorado, Boulder, tried to do. Using data from Hubble, Libby-Roberts.
- And his team analyzed the spectra obtained from the Kepler-51B atmosphere and to see if the components (including water) were there.
- When the planets passed in front of their stars, the light absorbed by their atmosphere was tested in infrared wavelengths.
- To the team’s surprise, they discovered that the spectra of both planets had no revealing chemical signatures.
- This was attributed to the presence of salt crystals or photochemical clouds in its atmosphere.
Therefore, the team relied on computer simulations and other devices to say that the Kepler-51 planets are mostly hydrogen and helium, covered with a thick mist made of methane.
This is similar to Titan’s movement to the atmosphere of Saturn (Saturn’s largest moon), where there are clouds of methane gas primarily in the nitrogen atmosphere that obscure the surface.
“It was completely unexpected,” Libby-Roberts said. “We had planned to visit large water absorption facilities, but they weren’t there. They forced us out!
However, these clouds provided the team with valuable information on how Kepler-51B and D compare with other low-mass gas-rich exoplanets observed by astronomers.” As Libby-Roberts stated in a CU Boulder press release.
- We knew they were low density. But when you break a cotton ball in the form of Jupiter, it is really low density.
- It definitely prevents us from coming to visit us. We expected to find water, but we could not observe the signature of any molecule.
- The team was able to improve the size and mass of these planets by measuring their effects of time.
- In all systems, there are slight changes in the planet’s orbit period due to its gravitational attraction, which can be used to obtain the mass of a planet.
- The team’s results coincided with previous estimates for the Kepler-51B, while estimates for the Kepler-51D indicated that it is a little less massive (also known as more bloated) than before.
- The team also compared the spectra of the two superpoletas with other planets and obtained results that indicated that cloud / fog formation is associated with the planet’s temperature.
- This supports the hypothesis that the planet is colder, it will be the cloud that some astronomers have discovered thanks to recent discoveries of exoplanets.
Sincerely: Geoff Mercy
Last but not least, the team noted that both Kepler-51B and D are losing gas quickly. In fact, the team estimates that the ancient planet (which is closer to its original star) is throwing tens of billions of tons of matter into space every second.
If this trend continues, the planets will be significantly reduced in the next billion years and can become mini-Neptune. In this sense, this would suggest that exoplanets are not so uncommon after all, which makes mini-catches seem very common.
- While the solar system is about 4.6 billion years old, Kepler-51 dates back to about 500 million years.
- The planetary model used by the team suggests the possibility of planets forming beyond the Kepler-51 frost line, the limit beyond which unstable elements freeze.
- This is an extreme example of what is great about the exoplanet in general.
- They give us the opportunity to study worlds that are very different from ours.
- But place the planets in a broader context in our solar system.
In the future, the deployment of next-generation instruments, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), will allow astronomers to investigate the atmosphere of the Kepler-51 planets and other superpoletas.