Neanderthal and Denisovan scientists in Y chromosome DNA sequence. The genomes of our closest relatives, Neanderthals and Denisovans, have been sequenced compared to modern humans. However, most of the archaic individuals with the highest quality scenes available have been women.
In new research, a team of geneticists from the United States, China, and Europe have sequenced three Y chromosomes inherited ancestrally from three Neanderthals and two Denisovans; Comparisons with archaic and modern human Y chromosomes indicated that, similar to mitochondrial DNA inherited from the mother (mtDNA).
Human and Neanderthal chromosomes and were more closely related to each other than Denisovan chromosomes; This result supports the conclusion that interbreeding between early Homo sapiens and Neanderthals replaced the older Denisovians.
And such as the Y chromosome and mitochondria in Neanderthals. Petr et al. A directed sequencing of Y chromosomes with ancestral inheritance of three Neanderthals and two Denisovans was performed. Image Sincerely: Neanderthal Museum
An increasing number of ancient DNA studies on Neanderthals, Denisovans, and Homo sapiens suggest intertwined development and population histories, including numerous acclaim events between modern and early archaic humans.
However, ancient nuclear and mtDNA sequences revealed phallogenic abnormalities between the three groups, which are difficult to elucidate. For example, the autosomal genome suggests that Neanderthals and Denisovans are sister groups that split from modern humans more than 550,000 years ago.
However, all but the earliest Neanderthal mtDNA samples are much more numerous than people today than Denisan’s. These studies suggest that the Neanderthal originally made mtDNA, like Denisovan, which was later replaced by early modern humans through early penetration, possibly between 350,000 and 150,000 years.
While the genomic data of the Y chromosome inherited from the father will help solve the puzzling gene flow, virtually none of the male Neanderthals and Denisovans have studies that include well-conserved Y chromosome DNA.
To address this gap, the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and its colleagues at Drs. Martin Petr used a targeted capture-based DNA sequencing approach to enrich and extract Y chromosome sequences from the remains of three male Neanderthals and two male Denisovans.
The researchers found that, like maternal hereditary mtDNA, modern human Y chromosomes and Neanderthals were more closely related to each other than Denisovan Y, supporting the suggestion that interbreeding and subsequent selection between early humans and Neatherals led to a Greater As the genetic material of the last Neanderthals made a total replacement for the old Denison.
“It was a big surprise for us,” said Dr. Petr, first author of the study. We know from studying their autosomal DNA that Neanderthals and Denisovans were closely related and that humans living today are their more distant evolutionary cousins.
Before looking at the data, we expected their Y chromosomes to show a similar picture. The authors also found that Denisovan Y chromosomes split from the lineage shared by Neanderthals and modern human Y chromosomes about 700,000 years ago.
Which originated from each other about 370,000 years ago. We hypothesized that, given the important role of the Y chromosome in reproduction and fertility, the low evolutionary fitness of the Neanderthal Y chromosome may have caused natural selection to favor the Y chromosome of early modern humans, said Dr. Petr.. He said.
If we can retrieve the Y chromosome sequence from Neanderthals, who lived before this presumed early introvert event, such as the 430,000-year-old Neanderthals from Sima de los Hosos in Spain, we predict that they still have the original Neanderthal Y chromosomes.
willpower. So modern humans can be more similar to Denisovans than humans, also says the study’s lead author, Dr. Janet Kelo, of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. The findings are published in the journal Science.
How Neanderthals Lost Their Y Chromosome. Neanderthals have long been viewed as super-male hawks, at least compared to their lighter human cousins, with whom they competed for food, territory, and companionship.
But a new study has found that Homo sapiens men inevitably devastated their wild brethren when they lived with Neanderthal women for more than 100,000 years. Those junctions caused modern Y chromosomes to spread through future generations of Neanderthal children, eventually replacing the Neanderthal Y.
The new discovery may solve the decades-long mystery of why researchers cannot discover the Neanderthal y chromosome. Part of the problem was the lack of DNA from the men – the dozen Neanderthals whose DNA has been sequenced so far, mostly from women.
Because the DNA in male Neanderthal fossils was poorly preserved or contaminated with bacteria. “We would have been surprised if a male Neanderthal had been there,” says Janet Kello, lead author of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and the new study.
But in a technical breakthrough, Max Planck graduate student Martin Petr devised a set of probes that use a DNA sequence to “eject fish” from a small fraction of the Y chromosome in modern males and the Y chromosome in males. archaic. It binds to DNA.
The new method works because modern human and Neanderthal chromosomes are almost the same; DNA probes also differ for certain reasons. The researchers examined the scented Y chromosomes of three Neanderthal men from Belgium, Spain and Russia, who lived about 38,000 to 53,000 years ago, and two Denisovan men.
A close cousin of the Neanderthal, who lived in Siberia’s Denisova Cave, between 46,000 and 130,000. He lived years ago. When the researchers sequenced the DNA, they were in for a surprise: Neanderthals “looked more like modern humans than Denisovans,” says Kelo.
It was a “puzzle,” says Petr, as previous studies have shown that the rest of the Neanderthal nuclear genome is very similar to that of Denisovans. It suggests that two groups descended from modern humans about 600,000 years ago.
But the presence of an unusual Y chromosome evokes another genetic acquisition: The Neanderthal dates back 38,000 to 100,000 years, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inherited from the mother of modern humans, found in earlier fossils.
Neanderthal is instead of mtDNA. In that case, one h. The Sapiens woman had sex with a Neanderthal man compared to 220,000 years ago and her descendants performed modern mtDNA.
The best scenario for interpreting the Y pattern is that, according to the team’s computational model, the first modern human men married Neanderthal women more than 100,000 years ago, but before 370,000 years.
It is possible that their children carried the modern human Y chromosome, which is inherited by descent. The modern Y spread rapidly through its lineage to small populations of Neanderthals in Europe and Asia, replacing the Neanderthal Y.
The researchers reported today, Science. Interestingly, modern human companions weren’t the ancestors of today’s H. sapiens, but they were likely part of a population that rapidly migrated from Africa and then became extinct.
Traces of Neanderthal DNA in living humans were inherited from a separate mixing event between 50,000 and 70,000 years ago. The researchers are not sure why the substitution occurred. Natural selection may have favored the H. sapiens Y chromosome.
Since the Neanderthal genome had more malignant mutations, Kelso says. Neanderthals had smaller populations than modern ones, and smaller populations accumulate deleterious mutations, especially on the X and Y sex chromosomes.
Modern humans, with their larger and more genetically diverse ancestral populations, can benefit genetically. Another possibility is that once Neanderthals inherited a modern human mtDNA, their cells may have favored interaction with modern human Y.
And says computational biologist Adam Cypel of the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. A study in We Are Not Part of.. The best way to test this scenario is to obtain DNA from early Neanderthals to see if their Y chromosome resembles in Denisovans. Meanwhile.
The study suggests that recognition between modern humans and the Neanderthal was “a defining feature of hominid history,” says population geneticist Josh Ake of Princeton University, who is not part of the study. This not only gave modern humans Neanderthal DNA, it changed the Neanderthal in fundamental ways.