Crucible Chrome Steel Was First Made In Persia, Archaeologists Say

Crucible Chrome Steel Was First Made In Persia, Archaeologists Say

Crucible chrome steel was first made in Persia, archaeologists say. An international team of archaeologists from University College London, the Cyprus Institute and the University of Cambridge met the Chalk archaeological site in southern Iran in the 11th century.

And found evidence of the intentional and regular addition of the chromite mineral chromite. . Crucible charge, resulting in steel containing approximately 1% by weight of chromium.

Crucible slag follows the inside of a crucible fragment. For more than a century, the evidence of crucible steel production in Central and South Asia prior to the European Industrial Revolution has fascinated and challenged physical scientists, historians, and archaeologists.

At the same time, chrome-alloyed stainless steel was developed in the early 20th century, based on 19th century experiments with reduced chrome steel. Our investigation provides the first evidence of the intentional addition of a chromium mineral in steel production.

We believe it was a Persian incident, said lead author Dr Rahil Alipore, a researcher at the Institute of Archeology at University College London. This research not only traces the oldest known evidence of chrome steel production as early as the 11th century AD.

But also provides a chemical tracer that helps identify crucible steel artifacts in museums or archaeological collections. With chalk, or chalk tradition. Chalk is described in various historical manuscripts, once described as a famous center of steel production between the 12th and 19th centuries.

It is the only known archaeological site within Iran’s borders with evidence of fierce steelmaking. While the chalk has been recorded as a site of archaeological significance, the exact location of crucible steel production in Iran remains a mystery and difficult, given that many villages in Iran have been named chalk.

The manuscript ‘Kitab al-Jamaahir fi Marifa al-Jawahir’ (‘The Most Complete Book on Gemstones’, 10th-11th centuries AD), written by the Persian Abu-Ryan Biruni polymorphism, was of special importance to scientists. It provides only the known method of making crucible steel.

Dr. Alipore and his colleagues argue that the mysterious compound ‘Raskhataj’ in Biruni’s recipe refers to the mineral chromite. They used radiocarbon dating of a series of charcoal fragments found within a crucible slag and blacksmith slag found at the Charkha archaeological site in southern Iran to date the industry to the 11th to 12th centuries AD.

Importantly, scanning electron microscopy techniques allowed them to identify chromite residues. They also detected 1–2% by weight of chromium in steel particles preserved in crucible slag, demonstrating that chromite minerals formed chromium steel alloys.

A process found in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Do not use it again until it starts. In the 13th century Persian manuscript, chalk steel was known for its fine and exquisite pattern, but its swords were also brittle, thus losing their market value, said Professor Thilo.

An archaeologist at the Institute of Archeology of the University College London. Raren said. And the Cyprus Institute. Today the site is a small town, previously recognized as a site of archaeological interest, known only for its agriculture.

The researchers believe that this marks a different Persian crucible steelmaking tradition, for the production of low chromium steel (about 1% by weight), different from the better known Central Asian methods in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan..

“The identification process can be quite lengthy and complex and this is for many reasons,” said Professor Marcos Martinston-Torres, an archaeologist in the Department of Archeology at the University of Cambridge.

“Previously, the language and words that were used to record technical processes or materials can no longer be used, or their meaning and motivation may be different from those used in modern science.”

Also, the writing was limited to the social elite, rather than the person who actually carried out the trade, which could lead to errors or omissions in the text. The findings were published online in the Journal of Archaeological Sciences.

According to a new study led by UCL researchers, chromium steel, which we know today as tool steel, was first made in Persia, roughly a millennium earlier than the experts we had previously encountered.

The discovery, published in the Journal of Archaeological Science, was made with the help of several medieval Persian manuscripts that led researchers to an archaeological site at Chalk, in southern Iran.

The findings are significant because physical scientists, historians, and archaeologists have long believed that chromium steel was a 20th century innovation. The lead author of the study, Drs. Rahil Alipore (UCL Archeology) said:

Our research provides the first evidence of the intentional addition of a chromium mineral in steel production. We believe it was a Persian incident. This research not only traces the oldest known evidence for chromium steel production as early as the 11th century CE.

But also provides a chemical tracer that helps identify crucible steel artifacts in museums or archaeological collections. With chalk, or chalk tradition. The chalk is described in several historical manuscripts that was once described as a famous steel production center in the 12th to 19th centuries.

And the only known archaeological site within the borders of Iran, with evidence of ruthless steelmaking. While the chalk has been recorded as a site of archaeological significance, the exact location of crucible steel production in Iran remains a mystery and difficult, given that many villages in Iran have been named chalk.

The manuscript “Al-Jamahir fi Marifa al-Jawahir” (“A compendium of Santiago”, 10th-11th centuries), written by the Persian scholar Abu-Rehan Biruni, had a special meaning, as conferred by researchers. The only known method of making crucible steel.

This recipe recorded a mysterious ingredient that he identified as a chromite mineral for the production of crucible chromium steel. The team used radiocarbon dating of charcoal pieces derived from crucible slag and blacksmith slag – products left over after metal separation – to date the industry from the 11th to 12th centuries AD.

Importantly, scanning electron microscopy analysis allowed them to identify mineral chromite residues, which were described in the Biruni manuscript as an essential additive to the process.

They also detected 1-2 weight percentages of chromium in steel particles preserved in crucible slag, demonstrating that chromite minerals formed chromium steel alloys, a process we see in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Do not use again until early.

Study co-author Professor Thilo Rahren (UCL & Cyprus Institute of Archeology) said: “In the 13th century, Dr. Chalk Steel, a Persian manuscript translated by Alipore, was noted for its fine and exquisite design, but their swords were also brittle.

They then lost their market value. Today, the site is a small town, previously identified as a site of archaeological interest, known only for its agriculture. Researchers believe this marks a different Persian crucible steelmaking tradition, different from the better-known Central Asian methods in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan.

And from steel with low chromium content (about 1 (one) percent by weight of chromium) For the production of.. Professor Marcos Martinon-Torres (University of Cambridge), final author of the study, said:

The identification process can be quite long and complex and is due to several reasons. First, the use of technical or material processes to register the languages and the words that are known can no longer be used.

Or their meaning and motivation may be different from those used in modern science“Also, the writing was limited to the social elite, rather than the person who actually carried out the trade, which could lead to errors or omissions in the text.”

Commenting on his next steps, Dr. Alipore said: “We look forward to working with museum experts to share our findings, supporting efforts to date and more with the unique chrome steel signature. melting pot “.

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