Biological origin in Martian thiophenes, astrobiologists, NASA‘s Curiosity Rover recently discovered several kinds of organic matter in Martian sediments. NASA’s Curiosity Rover recently discovered several kinds of organic materials in Martian sediment. A complicated group of organic compounds detected was theophene.
Which is usually found in soil, coal, crude oil, stromatolites, microfossils and, strangely, on Earth, in white truffles, the epicenter and loved mushrooms. Astrobiologists Durk Schulz-Makuch and Jacob Heinz believe that the presence of early life on Mars will be accompanied by the presence of Theophenes.
The impression of an artist from a habitable Mars. Image by Deine Ballard / CC BY-SA 3.0. In the study, Drs. Schulz-Makuch and Drs. Heinz explored some possible routes to the origin of the theophenes on Mars. His work suggests that an organic process, which probably contains bacteria, may have played a role in the existence of an organic compound in Martian soil.
A researcher at Washington State University, Dr. “We have identified several biological pathways for theophytes that are more likely than chemical ones, but we still need evidence,” said Shulze-Makuch. “If you find theophenos on Earth, you think they are biological, but on Mars, there are times to prove that it should be a little higher.”
Theophylline molecules have four carbon atoms and sulfur atoms arranged in a ring, and both carbon and sulfur are biossential elements. However, a scientist at the Technische Universität Berlin, Dr. Schulz-Makuch and Dr. Heinz cannot exclude the non-biological processes that lead to the existence of these compounds on Mars. Weather effects provide a possible abiotic description.
Thiophene can also be done by thermochemical sulfate reduction, a process that involves a set of compounds that are heated to 120 ° C (248 ° F) or more. Which existed 3,000 million years ago when Mars was hot and humid, could facilitate the sulfate reduction process and cause theophenis. There are other routes where thiophene is broken down by the bacteria themselves.
While curiosity has given many clues, it uses techniques that break down large molecules into components, so scientists can only see the resulting fragments. More evidence should be obtained from the next rover, Rosalind Franklin, which will be launched in July 2020. It will carry the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA).
Which uses a less destructive method of analysis that will allow the collection of larger molecules. The team uses the data collected by the next rover to search for carbon and sulfur isotopes. The creatures are lazy. They will use lighter isotopic forms of the element, because it costs them less energy, said Dr. Schulz-Makuch said.
Organisms vary the proportion of heavy and light isotopes in compounds that differ significantly from those found in their basic components, a telltale signal for life. “However, if the next rover returns this isotopic evidence.
It may still not be enough to conclusively prove that life exists or existed on Mars. As Carl Sagan said, ‘extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. I think the test would really need us to send people there, and an astronaut looks through a microscope and sees a dynamic microbe. The team article was published in the journal Astrobiology.
Biosigns in the Martian meteorite
Hungarian researchers claim to have seen biosigns in the Martian meteorite. A Martian rock found in Antarctica, according to a team of Hungarian scientists, contains many mineral biodetectors, including coke, filamentous structures, and organic matter. Artist’s impression of habitable Mars.
“Our work is important to a broad audience as it integrates the planetary, terrestrial, biological, chemical and environmental sciences and will be of interest to many researchers in those fields,” said team leader Dr. Said Ildico Giolai, a researcher at the HAS Research Center for Astronomy and Earth Sciences in Budapest.
“This research will be of interest to planetariums, meteorites, and astronomy experts, as well as origin-of-life researchers and the general public, as it exemplifies a novel aspect of microbial mediation in stone meteorites.” ALH-77005 thin section: poplin texture of olivine with accumulated pyroxene grains, studied pockets (rectangles) composed mainly of olivine.
The achondrocyte meteorite ALH-77005 was found partially imprisoned in ice at the Allen Hills site in southern Victoria during the Polar Research Mission of the Japanese National Institute in 1977-1978. It was round in shape and its surface was partially insulated and almost polished by the snow blowing in the wind.
Its age is estimated to be approximately 175 million years after exposure to cosmic rays of approximately 3 million years. Thin sections of ALH-77005 in polarized flat light: The area studied by FTIR spectroscopy is characterized by rectangles, where strong cystic changes mediated by microbes were observed. Image courtesy of: Joyalai et al, doi: 10.1515 / astro-2019-0002
Thin sections of ALH-77005 in polarized flat light: The area studied by FTIR spectroscopy is characterized by rectangles, where strong cystic changes mediated by microbes were observed. Image courtesy of: Joyalai et al, doi: 10.1515 / astro-2019-0002
Dr. Joyalai and his co-authors analyzed a thin section of ALH-77005 by light microscopy and FTIR-ATR. They were able to detect the presence of cocoidal and filamentary structures (possibly produced by iron-oxidized microbes); Organic material; Biogenic minerals, such as ferrihydrite, goethite, and hematite.
The researchers added, “Other indications for the biogenicity of ALH-77005 are strong negatives, 13C, iron, manganese, phosphorous, zinc.” “Our study proposes the presence of microbial mediation on Mars.” The team’s article was published in the online magazine Astronomy.
New evidence of life in a Martian meteorite
New evidence of life in a Martian meteorite. The discovery of fossil microbes has been claimed in the meteorites of Mars. Now Hungarian scientists have conducted a new study of the ALH-77005 meteorite, which has some interesting new evidence.
Irregular spots of color, like crystals on the cut part of the rock. Fine piece of martyr meteorite ALH-77005. The molten pocket area within the rectangle, where the scientists found evidence of microbial mediation.
Has there ever been life on Mars? We are still waiting for a definitive answer to that long-standing question, although evidence has continued to build that there may actually be fewer creatures, though most likely they are microscopes, or under those distant red sands.
Such a discovery would have a profound effect on the search for life in other parts of the solar system and on the exoplanet that orbits other stars. Now, a research team in Hungary has detected organic materials like minerals and filaments embedded in ALH-77005.
A Martian meteorite from the Allen Hills region of Antarctica. The material in the meteorite is similar to that produced by iron-oxidized microbes on Earth. On March 28, 2019, an online peer review was published in Open Astronomy magazine. According to Ildico Giolai, lead author of the HAS Research Center for Astronomy and Earth Sciences in Budapest:
Our work is important to a wide audience, as it integrates the planetary, earth, biological, chemical, and environmental sciences and will be of interest to many researchers in those fields. This research will be of interest to planetariums, meteorites, and astronomy experts, as well as origin-of-life researchers and the general public, as it exemplifies a novel aspect of microbial mediation in stone meteorites.
A lighter stain like the previous one, except for the dark area marked with a yellow rectangle. Another view of the same thin piece of a meteorite in polarized light. Image via Gyollai et al. Martian ALH-77005 meteorite found in 1977 in Allen Hills, Antarctica. Image via NASA or Wikipedia.
The Japanese National Polar Research Mission Institute (1977–1978) discovered the ALH-77005 meteorite in the Allen Hills in Antarctica in 1977. The meteorite is estimated to be 175 million years old. It is a shergottite meteorite made of igneous rock, named after the shergotti meteorite.
Which fell in 1865 in Sherghati, India (formerly Shergotti). About three-quarters of all known Martian meteorites are shergatite. How do we know that these meteorites came from Mars? Like other meteorites on Mars, the ALH-77005 is known to have originated on Mars, as it has a structure similar to the rocks and gases in the atmosphere analyzed by the Mars spacecraft.
Curiosity Rover confirmed the connection between these meteorites found on Earth in October 2013 after analyzing argon in the atmosphere of Mars. Argon was found to be similar to the argon mark on meteorites. For this new study, the researchers took samples from a very thin section of the meteorite.
And studied it using light microscopy for microscopy (microscopic texture patterns) and FTIR-ATR microscopy. What they found is intriguing. They embedded embedded spherical and filiform structures, materials that represent possible bio-signatures, namely mineral remains of ancient microbes and their transformation of minerals into rock. Possible biosignatures are found within opaque minerals and within the fusion pocket.
Which are the result of blow and fracture during the meteorite’s encounter with Earth. As the document also noted. Other signatures for the biogenicity of ALH-77005 are strong negative delta-C-13, enrichment of iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc in the setting of shock fusion support. Our study proposes the presence of microbial mediation on Mars. Overall, the findings highlighted by ALH-77005 are listed in the document as follows:
- Possible iron oxidizing filamentous bacteria found in the shergotite shock pocket.
- Potential biosignes determined by light microscopy and by FTIR-ATR.
- Bioactive elements and carbon isotope data.
- Comparison of similar results of mezzo-madrasa, mox, kannahinya, which, according to these authors, suggest biogenicity on Mars.
Possible evidence of life has been found
This is the first time that possible evidence of life has been found, or at least affirmed, in Martian meteorites. An excellent example: in 1996, David S. A team of scientists led by McKay announced the discovery of floating bacteria like microbial fossils in another Allen Hills meteorite: ALH-84001.
It was widely reported, and President Clinton made a speech about it at the time. However, other studies by other scientists objected to the interpretation of life, as non-biological explanations were found to constitute characteristics similar to microgroups.
Similar (non-life-related) abiotic characteristics were created in the laboratory, although McKay insisted that those results were obtained using pure raw materials not listed as a starting point and in ALH-84001 did not explain many of the characteristics found. In 2010.
Another team of scientists, including McKay, said they found more than three times the original amount of fossil-like data, including more biomorphs (suspected fossils) within two additional Martian meteorites, and more evidence elsewhere in Allen. Hills. Are included. Meteorite.
Curious mineral formations on ALH-77005 now join a growing list of tentative evidence for ancient life on Mars. If they can be confirmed, it would be one of the most exciting discoveries in planetary science and human history.
Many objects of round rectangular end in meteorite. Rod-shaped objects, such as some bacteria found in the Martian meteorite ALH-84001, observed by a scanning electron microscope announced in 1996. Image via McKay et al / Lunar and Planetary Institute.
Conclusion: If further research continues to see these new results from Hungary, they are certainly interesting and may help prevent previously announced results from microbial fossils in Martian meteorites.