Astronomers capture galactic fireworks in the nearby spiral galaxy, This is an impressive fireworks display, which includes a supermask black hole. Astronomers capture galactic fireworks in the nearby spiral galaxy.
This impressive display of fireworks, which includes a supermassive black hole, massive shock waves and a huge gas tank, is taking place in an intermediate spiral galaxy called Messier 106. This composite image shows the spiral galaxy Messier 106 similar to the Milky Way.
X-rays from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory are shown in blue, with much larger radio data from Carl Zanski of the NSF in purple optical data from NASA shown. The ESA Hubble Space Telescope is shown in yellow and infrared data from the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.
Messier 106 is 20 million light years away in the small constellation of North Keynes Venetic. Also known as M106 or NGC 4258, the galaxy was discovered in 1781 by Pierre Mechin, an assistant to Charles Messier. However, NASA astronomers said: Messier 106 is famous because our galaxy has two additional spiral arms, which glow with X-rays, optical and radio.
These strange arms do not align with the plane of the Milky Way, but intersect with it. These additional weapons are seen in the new composite image of Messier 106. Recent observations from NASA’s Spitzer space telescope show that shock waves are heating large amounts of gas, the equivalent of about 10 million soles. Is it causing shock waves?
We believe that the supermassive black hole in the center of Messier 106 is producing a powerful stream of high-energy particles, the researchers said. “These jets hit the disk of the galaxy and generate shock waves. These shock waves, in turn, heat the gas.
Which is mainly composed of hydrogen molecules, to thousands of degrees. The lunar observation reveals huge bubbles of hot gas on and under the Messier 106 plane. The scientists said: “These bubbles indicate that most of the gas originally present in the disk of the galaxy has been heated by jets from a black hole and expelled to the outer regions.”
The rejection of disk gas by the jet has important implications for the fate of this galaxy. He estimates that all remaining gases will be pumped within the next 300 million years, until it recovers in some way. Because most of the gas in the disk has already been expelled.
There is less gas available to create new stars, he said. In fact, we use Spitzer data to estimate that stars are forming in the central regions of Messier 106, at a rate approximately 10 times lower than the Milky Way. Using data from the ESA Herschel Space Observatory, astronomers confirmed estimates of Spitzer data from low star formation rates in the central regions of Messier 106.
Herschel data was also used to make an independent estimate of how much gas resides in the center of the galaxy. After allowing a large increase in infrared emissions due to the crash, we discovered that the mass of gas is ten times smaller than before, the researchers said. Because Messier 106 is relatively close to Earth, we can study how this black hole is affecting its galaxy in great detail.
This composite image shows the spiral galaxy Messier 106 similar to the Milky Way: X-rays from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory are shown in blue, much larger radio data from NSA’s Karl Zansky, purple, optical shown by NASA Data. The ESA Hubble Space Telescope is shown in yellow and infrared data from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope.
Messier 106, 20 million light years away in the small constellation of North Keynes Venetic. Also known as M106 or NGC 4258, the galaxy was discovered in 1781 by Pierre Meachin as assistant to Charles Messier. However, NASA astronomers said: “Messier 106 is famous because our galaxy has two additional spiral arms, which glow with X-rays, optical and radio.
These strange weapons do not line up with the Milky Way plane, but Let’s go with that. These additional weapons are seen in the new composite image of Messier 106. Recent observations from NASA’s Spitzer space telescope show that shock waves are heating large amounts of gas, equivalent to about 10 million soles. Is it causing shock waves?
We believe that the supermassive black hole in the center of Messier 106 is producing a powerful stream of high-energy particles, “the researchers said. These jets collide with the disk of the galaxy and produce shock waves.
These shock waves, At their time, heat Gas, which is mainly composed of hydrogen molecules of up to thousands of degrees Lunar observation Messier 106 A huge bubble of hot gas under and under the plane Shows.
The scientists said: These bubbles indicate that most of the gas in the galaxy’s disks has been heated by the jet from the black hole and expelled to the outer regions. There are significant implications for the rejection of disk gas by the jet.
The fate of this galaxy: estimates that all remaining gases will be pumped in the next 300 million years, until it recovers in some way. Because most of the gas in the disk has already been expelled, there is less gas available to create new stars, “he said.
In fact, we use Spitzer data to infer that the stars are between Messier 106. Areas are forming in the region, approximately 10 times smaller than the Milky Way.Using data from the ESA Herschel Space Observatory.
Astronomers confirmed estimates of Spitzer data at lower star formation rates in the central regions of Messier 106. Herschel data was also used to independently estimate the amount of gas in the center of the galaxy. The researchers said that after allowing a large increase in infrared emissions due to the accident, we discovered that the mass of the gas is ten times less than before.
Because Messier 106 is relatively close to Earth, we can study how this black hole is affecting its galaxy in great detail. Scientific events to see in 2020: An invasion of Mars, a climatic meeting and human-animal hybrids are scheduled to shape the research agenda.
An engineer working on NASA’s Mars 2020 rover and NASA’s Mars 2020 mission will feature a detachable unmanned helicopter, and is one of several missions to the Red Planet in the coming year. 2020 will see an important invasion of Mars in the form of several spacecraft, including three astronauts.
The head of the Red Planet. NASA will launch its Mars 2020 rover, which will roll back rock samples on a future mission and will feature a small detachable drone. China will send its first landing module to Mars, Huxing-1, which will deploy a small rover.
A Russian spacecraft will deliver a rover from the European Space Agency (ESA) to the Red Planet, if problems with landing parachutes can be resolved and the United Arab Emirates will send an orbiter from an Arab country to the first mission to Mars.
Closer to home, China plans to send the Chang-5 samples return mission to the moon and in other parts of the solar system, Japan’s Hayabusa 2 mission is due to the Ryugu asteroid that returns samples to Ryugu Earth, and NASA’s OSIRIS-REx will cut a part of its own asteroid, Bennu.
After a splash of media created by its own image of a supermassive black hole in the center of the Messier 87 galaxy in 2019. The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration hopes to launch new results, this time over the black hole in the center of the Milky Way.
It can include several images and even a movie that revolves around the gas around Behmoth, called Dhanu A. Later in the year, ESA’s Gaia mission will update its 3D map of the Milky Way, which has clearly changed the way scientists understand the structure and evolution of the Galaxy and in 2019.
And gravity wave astronomers will reveal the celebrations of cosmic collisions that created space-time waves. These include several mergers of black holes, but there was already an invisible collision of a black hole and a star.
Dreams of mega colliders: CERN expects to secure funds for future mega-colliders in 2020. The European Particle Physics Laboratory, near Geneva, Switzerland, will hold a special meeting of its council in Budapest in May.
Where a committee will decide as part of the plan an update of the European strategy of the Laboratory for particle physics. CERN’s proposal includes a menu of options for future colliders. The laboratory expects to build a 100-kilometer machine that can be up to six times more powerful than the Large Hadron Collider and costs up to US $ 21 billion (US $ 23.4 billion).
In the United States, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, near Chicago, Illinois, must reveal the long-awaited results of the Muon G-2, a high-precision measurement of how many more siblings of electrons in a magnetic field. Behave Physicists expect minor anomalies to reveal previously unknown elementary particles.
An ambitious effort by synthetic biologists to rebuild Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is scheduled to be completed in 2020. Researchers, for example, have completely changed the genetic code of very simple organisms before the Mycoplasma myoids bacteria, but they do in yeast cells. Challenging due to its complexity.
The effort, called Synthetic Yeast 2.0, is a collaboration between 15 laboratories on 4 continents. The teams have replaced the DNA in the 16 S chromosomes with cerebellar variants as a cerebellar fragment. He has also experimented with the restructuring and editing of the genome.
He removal of its fragments, to understand how the organism evolved and how it handles mutations. Researchers expect modified yeast cells to achieve more efficient and inflexible methods to build a large number of products, from biofuels to medicines.
In August, the United Nations Environment Program will publish an important report on the scientific and technical aspects of geoengineering approaches that can be used to combat climate change. These include extracting carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and blocking sunlight.
Also in 2020, the International Seabed Authority will issue long-awaited regulations that will allow mining under the sea. Scientists fear that there is not enough information on how the practice could damage marine ecosystems, with potentially devastating effects on an already stressed environment.
But the big weather event will arrive in November, when the COP26 climate conference is the moment of truth for the Paris Agreement, closed in Glasgow, United Kingdom. Under the 2015 agreement, countries must present updated targets to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions so that global warming cannot be increased beyond 2 degrees Celsius.
But most countries have been slow to implement their promises. And the future of the treaty itself hangs in the balance: the United States is expected to formally withdraw that month. The White House and the US Congress. UU.
They must deliver graves in November, and the results can have important implications for science, especially in the weather. A second term will continue to allow President Donald Trump to expose his predecessor climate policies and guarantee the formal exit of the United States from the Paris Agreement the day after the elections.
Democrats can accelerate those efforts by winning the White House or securing a majority in both houses of Congress. The 435 seats in the House of Representatives and 35 of the 100 seats in the Senate are being contested.
The dream of growing replacement organs for humans in other animals can come true as researchers progress in morally lethal techniques. The stem cell scientist Hiromitsu Nakauchi of the University of Tokyo plans to develop tissues made of human cells in mice and rat embryos.
He would then transplant those hybrid embryos into substitute animals, a movement that was not allowed until a new law entered into force in Japan last March. Nakauchi and his colleagues have also requested to conduct a similar experiment with pig embryos.
The ultimate goal of this research is to produce animals with organs that can eventually be transplanted into people. But some researchers think it would be safer and more effective to grow ‘organoids’ in the laboratory.
In the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, an important test of a technique that can stop the spread of dengue fever will come to an end. Researchers have released mosquitoes carrying Wolbachia bacteria.
Which inhibit the replication of viruses transmitted by mosquitoes that cause dengue, chikungunya and zika, and allow the infection to spread to wild populations. Small essays in Indonesia, Vietnam and Brazil have shown a tempting promise.
A vaccine against malaria is also promising due to the bioco of the island of Equatorial Guinea. And in 2020, the World Health Organization hopes to eliminate sleeping sickness. African trypanosomiasis, as a public health problem. This infamous disease is transmitted by tretti flies (Glossina spp.).
Physicists hope to achieve their dream of creating a material that conducts electricity at room temperature without resistance. However, for now, these superconducting materials only work under the pressure of millions of kilopascals.
After the success of the compounds called lanthanum superhydrides, which broke all temperature records for superconductivity in 2018. The researchers hoped to synthesize yttrium superhydrides that could be superconductors at temperatures up to 53 ° C.
Companies have plans to sell large and small solar cells, using percocytes, promising materials for cheaper and easier production than the silicon crystals used in traditional solar panels. When and together the cells combine with silicon.
They can produce the most efficient solar panel on the market. The energy sector could accomplish another feat during the Tokyo Olympics in July. When Toyota is expected to present the first prototype of a car powered by co-solid state lithium-ion batteries.
These replace the fluid that separates the electrodes inside the battery with a solid substance, increasing the amount of energy that can be stored. Solid electrolyte batteries last longer, but charge more slowly. Astronomers reveal new details about the galaxies that make up the monster’s star ers.
An international team of astronomers from Japan, Mexico and Massachusetts Amherst, studying a “monstrous galaxy” 12.4 billion light-years away today, reported that their devices reached an angular resolution 10 times greater than before.
The structural structure of the galaxy it is completely unknown at first. They were also able to analyze dynamic properties that could not be investigated before. Details appear in nature. So-called “monstrous galaxies” or extreme starburst galaxies are considered the ancestors of massive galaxies like the Milky Way in the current universe.
So these findings about the galaxy are known as COSMOS-AzTEC-1, which is their It gives the way to understand training and development. The researchers say. Co-author Min Yoon, professor of astronomy at UMus Amherst and a member of the team that discovered this galaxy in 2007 using an instrument built by UMass called Aztec in Chile, says:
“A real surprise is that this galaxy is almost 13 billion years old. it is a huge ordered gas disk that is in regular rotation instead of what we expected, like a sort of disorganized train wreck that most theoretical studies predicted. “
He said he says he saw that this gas disk is now dynamically unstable, meaning that the entire gas disk that makes up this galaxy is going through a massive episode of stellar explosion, which explains its rate of massive star formation. Help, more than 1,000 times more Milky Way galaxy.
These more recent COSMOS-AzTEC-1 observation discoveries led to the Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array (ALMA), a telescope and facility operated by an international association in Chile.
Ken-Ichi Tadaki is the lead author of this week’s research and a postdoctoral researcher at the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and the National Astronomical Observatory of the Nation. He says: “One of the best parts of ALMA observations is seeing galaxies that distant with unprecedented resolution.”
Astronomers have wondered why monstrous galaxies can make stars at such shocking speed. To begin to understand, they needed to characterize the environment around the stellar nursery. Creating detailed molecular cloud maps is an important step, he says.
Tadaki and his team discovered that COSMOS-AzTEC-1 is rich in starlight, but the nature of cosmic gas in the galaxy was still difficult to detect. They used ALMA’s high resolution and high sensitivity to observe the galaxy and detailed maps of gas and distribution movements to create the highest resolution molecular gas map of the distant monstrous galaxy ever created.
“We discovered that there are two large different clouds several thousand light-years away from the center,” explains Tadaki. “In most distant starry galaxies, stars actively form at the center. So it is surprising to find off-center clouds.”
Yun says: “How these galaxies first collected such a large amount of gas and then essentially turned the entire gas reserve into stars in the blink of an eye, which is, more commonly speaking, what we were a completely unknown question about.” You can only speculate. Now we have the first answers. “
He says: “By the time this result came from ALMA, no one knew how nature built on a grand scale, Young Bangs created just a billion years after the Big Bang. Aztec instruments 10 years ago. Finding them using was a true discovery, but it defined the explanation “.
With the new observations, team members now believe the monstrous galaxy is “powered by an extremely heavy disk that remains stable until enough gas accumulates. We still don’t know how to get so much gas so fast. It collects.
Yun says: This huge reserve of gas did not turn into fire and stars, as gas is known to do in the local universe. Astronomers discovered that the gas clouds in COSMOS-AzTEC-1 are very unstable, which is unusual. In a normal state, they indicate that internal gravity and external pressure are balanced.
Once the gravitational pressure is overcome, the gas cloud collapses and forms stars at high speeds. Then, at the end of the stellar life cycle, stars and supernovae explode gases, increasing external pressure.
As a result, gravity and pressure reach a balanced state, and star formation continues at a moderate speed. In this way, the formation of stars in galaxies is self-regulating. But in COSMOS-AzTEC-1, the pressure is much weaker than gravity and is more difficult to balance.
Therefore, this galaxy shows a runaway star formation and transforms into an unstoppable monstrous galaxy. Tadaki, Yun, and their colleagues estimate that the gas in COSMOS-AzTEC-1 will be completely consumed in 100 million years, 10 times faster than other stars that make up the galaxy.
It is not yet clear why the gas is so volatile in COSMOS-AzTEC-1, but a phenomenon called “galaxy merging” is a possible cause. The galaxy’s collision efficiently transported the gas to a small area and ignited an intense star formation.
Tadaki says: “At this time, we have no evidence of a merger in this galaxy. But by looking at other similar galaxies with ALMA, we want to reveal the connection between galaxy mergers and monstrous galaxies.”